1794 Ulleungdo Inspection: Gajido (가지도) and more dead sea lions
The following is the report of a 1794 Korean inspection of Ulleungdo and my analysis of it. The report is significant because it refers to an island named Gajido (可支島), which Koreans claim was a reference to present-day “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks). However, there is little or no basis for such a claim since the report mentioned no coordinates for Gajido (可支島), no bearing, distance, or description. Also, there are no other references to the island in Korean historical documents. In fact, there is no solid evidence in any Korean document or on any Korean map before 1905 that would support the claim that Koreans even knew about “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks). So why do Koreans claim that Gajido was a reference to “Dokdo”? Well, they base their claim solely on the fact that sea lions lived on both Gajido (可支島) and on “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks). In fact, the name, Gajido (可支島), means “Seal Island.” The problem with that logic, however, is that it ignores the fact that sea lions or seals also lived on Ulleungdo.
In my analysis of the 1794 report, I will try to show that Gajido was not a reference to “Dokdo,” but was simply a reference to a place, rock, or island on or around Ulleungdo. In fact, an 1886 inspection of Ulleungdo, which you can read about here, said that sea lions or seals were hunted on Ulleungdo. That report, in itself, pours cold water on Korea’s “Gajido-was-Dokdo” claim, but the 1894 report below will pour even more.
An 1882 map of Ulleungdo shows a cave on the west coast of the island named “Seal Cave” (可支窟), You can see the 1882 map here. Moveover, on modern maps of Ulleungdo, there is a cave on the west coast of Ulleungdo located at about the same location as the cave shown on the 1882 map. The cave on modern maps, however, is called Gajaet-gul (가잿굴), which appears to mean “Crawfish Cave.” You can see it on this modern map of Ulleungdo.
I think Gajaet-gul (가잿굴) was originally Gaje-gul, which would mean “Seal Cave.” The “t” sound in the word “gajaet-gul” is added to connect the word “gajae” (crawfish) to the word “gul” (cave).
Gaji-eo (可支魚) was the Chinese-character-based word for “sea lions” or “seals” in old Korean documents, but the pure Korean word for sea lions that is used today is “gangchi” (강치). In the Ulleungdo dialect, however, “gangchi” (강치) is pronounced as “gaje” (가제), which is very similar in sound to gajae (가재), which means “crawfish.” I think the cave labeled as gajaet-gul (가잿굴) on modern maps of Ulleungdo was originally pronounced as gaje-gul (가제굴). I base my claim on the fact that marine product lists from Ulleungdo never listed “crawfish” (가재) but did list “sea lions” (可支魚). You can see sea lions listed as a product of Ulleungdo on this 1750s Korean map of the island. Also, crawfish are freshwater animals, not saltwater.
Also, there is a rock off the southern tip of Ulleungdo called “Gajae Rock” (가재바위). You can see the rock here on this closeup map of the southern tip of Ulleungdo. Again, notice that the word “gajae” (가재), which can mean “crawfish” in Korean, is used to name the rock. However, it makes no sense that a rock surrounded by salt water would be named “Crawfish Rock” since crawfish are freshwater animals. It is much more likely that “gajae” (가재) was referring to sea lions since the Ulleungdo pronunciation for sea lion is “gaje” (가제), which is only a slight difference in pronunciation. By the way, I am very suspicious of why Koreans chose to use “gajae” to name these places instead “of gaje.”
Anyway, I think Gajae Rock (가재바위) could have been what the 1794 Korean report referred to as “Gajido” (可支島). I base my claim not only on the fact that the name of the rock sounds almost exactly like the Ulleungdo pronunciation for “sea lion,” but also on the fact that this 1863 British map of Ulleungdo labels that southern tip of the island as “Seal Pt.” (Seal Point).
Of course, Gajido (可支島) could have also been referring to a rock on the west coast of Ulleungdo in front of or near “Seal Cave,” especially since there is a rock in that area called “Saja Bawui” (사자바위), which means “Lion Rock.” You can see the rock on this modern map of Ulleungdo. It is possible that “Lion Rock” may have been a reference to “seal lions” since Koreans also use the word “bada saja” (바다사자) to refer to sea lions. “Bada saja” literally means “sea lion.”
Here is the Chinese-character based 1794 report, a Korean translation, and my translation:
鬱陵島搜討, 間二年, 使邊將輪回擧行, 已有定式, 故搜討官越松萬戶韓昌國處, 發關分付矣。 該萬戶牒呈: “四月二十一日, 幸得順風, 糧饌雜物分, 載四隻船, 與倭學李福祥及上下員役、格軍八十名, 同日未時量, 到于大洋中, 則酉時, 北風猝起, 雲霧四塞, 驟雨霹靂, 一時齊發, 四船各自分散, 莫知所向。 萬戶收拾精神, 戎服禱海, 多散糧米, 以餽海神後, 使格軍輩, 擧火應之, 則二隻船擧火而應, 一隻船漠然無火矣。 二十二日寅時, 怒濤漸息, 只見遠海之中, 二隻船帆自南而來。 格軍輩擧手指東曰: ‘彼雲霧中隱隱如雲者, 疑是島中上峰也。’ 萬戶詳細遠望, 則果是島形也。 親自擊皷, 激勵格軍, 卽爲到泊於島之西面黃土丘尾津。 登山看審, 則自谷至中峰三十餘里, 而山形重疊, 谷水成川, 其中有可作水田六十餘石下種之地。 谷則狹窄, 有瀑布, 而左爲黃土丘尾窟, 右爲屛風石。 其上又有香木亭, 故斫取香木, 而以間年斫取之故, 漸就稀少。 二十四日到桶丘尾津, 則谷形如桶, 前有一巖在海中, 與島相距可爲五十步, 而高近數十丈, 周回皆是絶壁。 谷口巖石層層, 僅僅攀登而見之, 則山高谷深, 樹木參天, 雜草茂密, 通涉無路。 二十五日到長作地浦, 谷口果有竹田, 非但稀踈, 擧皆體小。 其中擇其稍大者斫取後, 仍向東南楮田洞, 則自洞口至中峰爲數十里許, 而洞裏廣闊基址, 顯有三處, 可作水田數十石下種之地。 前有三島, 在北曰防牌島, 在中曰竹島, 在東曰瓮島。 三島相距, 不過百餘步, 島之周回, 各爲數十把, 險巖嵂屼, 難以登覽, 仍爲止宿。 二十六日轉向可支島, 四五箇可支魚, 驚駭躍出, 形若水牛。 砲手齊放, 捉得二首, 而丘尾津山形, 最爲奇異, 入谷數里, 則昔日人家遺址, 宛然尙存。 左右山谷, 甚爲幽深, 難於登陟。 仍遍看竹巖、帿布巖、孔巖、錐山等諸處, 行到桶丘尾, 禱山祭海, 待風留住。 蓋島周回, 摠爲論之, 則南北七八十里許, 東西五六十里許。 環海則皆是層巖絶壁, 四方山谷, 則間有昔日人居之土址, 而田土可墾處, 合爲數百石下種之地。 樹木則香、栢、蘗、檜、桑、榛, 雜草則靑芹、葵、艾、苧、楮。 其餘異樹奇草, 不知名, 難以盡記。 羽蟲則雁、鷹、鷗、鷺, 毛蟲則貓、鼠, 海産則藿、鰒而已。 三十日發船, 初八日還鎭。 島中所産可支魚皮二令、篁竹三箇、紫檀香二吐莫、石間朱五升、圖形一本, 監封上使” 云。 幷上送于備邊司。
강원도 관찰사 심진현(沈晉賢)이 장계하였다.
“울릉도의 수토(搜討)를 2년에 한 번씩 변장(邊將)으로 하여금 돌아가며 거행하기로 이미 정식(定式)을 삼고 있기 때문에, 수토관 월송 만호(越松萬戶) 한창국(韓昌國)에게 관문을 띄워 분부하였습니다. 월송 만호의 첩정(牒呈)에 ‘4월 21일 다행히도 순풍을 얻어서 식량과 반찬거리를 4척의 배에 나누어 싣고 왜학(倭學) 이복상(李福祥) 및 상하 원역(員役)과 격군(格軍) 80명을 거느리고 같은 날 미시(未時)쯤에 출선하여 바다 한가운데에 이르렀는데, 유시(酉時)에 갑자기 북풍이 일며 안개가 사방에 자욱하게 끼고, 우뢰와 함께 장대비가 쏟아졌습니다. 일시에 출발한 4척의 배가 뿔뿔이 흩어져서 어디로 가고 있는지 알 수 없었는데, 만호가 정신을 차려 군복을 입고 바다에 기원한 다음 많은 식량을 물에 뿌려 해신(海神)을 먹인 뒤에 격군들을 시켜 횃불을 들어 호응케 했더니, 두 척의 배는 횃불을 들어서 대답하고 한 척의 배는 불빛이 전혀 보이지 않았습니다. 22일 인시(寅時)에 거센 파도가 점차 가라앉으면서 바다 멀리서 두 척의 배 돛이 남쪽에 오고 있는 것만을 바라보고 있던 참에 격군들이 동쪽을 가리키며 ‘저기 안개 속으로 은은히 구름처럼 보이는 것이 아마 섬 안의 높은 산봉우리일 것이다.’ 하기에, 만호가 자세히 바라보니 과연 그것은 섬의 형태였습니다. 직접 북을 치며 격군을 격려하여 곧장 섬의 서쪽 황토구미진(黃土丘尾津)에 정박하여 산으로 올라가서 살펴보니, 계곡에서 중봉(中峰)까지의 30여 리에는 산세가 중첩되면서 계곡의 물이 내를 이루고 있었는데, 그 안에는 논 60여 섬지기의 땅이 있고, 골짜기는 아주 좁고 폭포가 있었습니다. 그 왼편은 황토구미굴(黃土丘尾窟)이 있고 오른편은 병풍석(屛風石)이 있으며 또 그 위에는 향목정(香木亭)이 있는데, 예전에 한 해 걸러씩 향나무를 베어 갔던 까닭에 향나무가 점차 듬성듬성해지고 있습니다.
24일에 통구미진(桶丘尾津)에 도착하니 계곡의 모양새가 마치 나무통과 같고 그 앞에 바위가 하나 있는데, 바닷속에 있는 그 바위는 섬과의 거리가 50보(步)쯤 되고 높이가 수십 길이나 되며, 주위는 사면이 모두 절벽이었습니다. 계곡 어귀에는 암석이 층층이 쌓여 있는데, 근근이 기어올라가 보니 산은 높고 골은 깊은데다 수목은 하늘에 맞닿아 있고 잡초는 무성하여 길을 헤치고 나갈 수가 없었습니다.
25일에 장작지포(長作地浦)의 계곡 어귀에 도착해보니 과연 대밭이 있는데, 대나무가 듬성듬성할 뿐만 아니라 거의가 작달막하였습니다. 그중에서 조금 큰 것들만 베어낸 뒤에, 이어 동남쪽 저전동(楮田洞)으로 가보니 골짜기 어귀에서 중봉에 이르기까지 수십 리 사이에 세 곳의 널찍한 터전이 있어 수십 섬지기의 땅이었습니다. 또 그 앞에 세 개의 섬이 있는데, 북쪽의 것은 방패도(防牌島), 가운데의 것은 죽도(竹島), 동쪽의 것은 옹도(瓮島)이며, 세 섬 사이의 거리는 1백여 보(步)에 불과하고 섬의 둘레는 각각 수십 파(把)씩 되는데, 험한 바위들이 하도 쭈뼛쭈뼛하여 올라가 보기가 어려웠습니다.
거기서 자고 26일에 가지도(可支島)로 가니, 네댓 마리의 가지어(可支魚)가 놀라서 뛰쳐나오는데, 모양은 수소와 같았고, 포수들이 일제히 포를 쏘아 두 마리를 잡았습니다. 그리고 구미진(丘尾津)의 산세가 가장 기이한데, 계곡으로 십여 리를 들어가니 옛날 인가의 터전이 여태까지 완연히 남아 있고, 좌우의 산곡이 매우 깊숙하여 올라가기는 어려웠습니다. 이어 죽암(竹巖)•후포암(帿布巖)•공암(孔巖)•추산(錐山) 등의 여러 곳을 둘려보고 나서 통구미(桶丘尾)로 가서 산과 바다에 고사를 지낸 다음, 바람이 가라앉기를 기다려 머무르고 있었습니다.
대저 섬의 둘레를 총괄하여 논한다면 남북이 70, 80리 남짓에 동서가 50, 60리 남짓하고 사면이 모두 층암 절벽이며, 사방의 산곡에 이따금씩 옛날 사람이 살던 집터가 있고 전지로 개간할 만한 곳은 도합 수백 섬지기쯤 되었으며, 수목으로는 향나무•잣나무•황벽나무•노송나무•뽕나무•개암나무, 잡초로는 미나리•아욱•쑥•모시풀•닥나무가 주종을 이루고, 그 밖에도 이상한 나무들과 풀은 이름을 몰라서 다 기록하기 어려웠습니다. 우충(羽虫)으로는 기러기•매•갈매기•백로가 있고, 모충(毛虫)으로는 고양이•쥐가 있으며, 해산물로는 미역과 전복뿐이었습니다.
30일에 배를 타고 출발하여 새달 8일에 본진으로 돌아왔습니다. 섬 안의 산물인 가지어 가죽 2벌, 황죽(篁竹) 3개, 자단향(紫檀香) 2토막, 석간주(石間朱) 5되, 도형(圖形) 1벌을 감봉(監封)하여 올립니다.’ 하였으므로, 함께 비변사로 올려보냅니다.
Gangwondo Governor Sim jin-hyeon reported to the king.
I sent a order to Wolsong Commander Inspector Han Chang-sik to inspect Ulleungdo. These inspections are officially held every year and are rotated between the two frontier commanders.
The Wolsong commander reported, “On April 21st, we got a favorable wind and divided and loaded provisions, including foodstuff, on four ships and set sail between 1 and 3 p.m. with Japanese Expert Lee Bok-sang, various ranks of civil servants, and eighty sailors.”
“In the middle of the sea at between 5 and 7 p.m., we got a sudden wind from the north and heavy fog in all directions. We got thunder and heavy rain. All four of our ships were scattered, and we lost sight of each other. The commander regained his wits, put on his military uniform, prayed to the sea god, and scattered food in the water to feed him. Then he ordered the sailors to hold up torches and call out to the other ships. Two ships held up torches and answered the call, but there was no sign of firelight from one ship.”
“Between 3 and 5 a.m. on the 22nd, the violent waves gradually lessened, and we could see in the distance the sails of two ships coming south. Then the sailors pointed to the east and said, “That thing over there in the fog that looks like a threatening cloud is probably the island’s highest peak.” When the commander looked carefully, it was the shape of an island.”
“The commander, himself, beat the drum and urged the sailors on. We soon anchored at the Hwangto-gumi Landing (黃土丘尾津) and went up the mountain to look around. It was about thirty ri from the valley to the central peak over a series of overlapping ridges. The waters from the valley came together to form a stream, and inside (the valley) was about 60-seomjigi of rice-paddy land. The valley was narrow, and there was a waterfall. The Hwangto-gumi Cave (黃土丘尾窟) was on the left and Byeongpung Rock (屛風石) was on the right. Up above there was Hyangmok Pavilion (香木亭). The juniper trees (香木) there were scare because they had previously been cut down every other year in former times.”
“On the 24th, we arrived at Tong-gumi Landing (桶丘尾津). The valley was shaped just like a wooden barrel, and there was a rock in front about fifty paces offshore. It was tens of gil high. There were cliffs on all sides. There were mounds of rock piled up at the entrance of the valley. With difficulty we crawled up the valley, but we could not fight our way through because the peaks were high, the valleys were deep, the trees reached to the sky, and the weeds were thick.”
“On the 25th, we arrived at the valley entrance of Port Jangjakji (長斫之浦). As expected, we found a bamboo thicket, but the bamboo was not only sparse, it was also stumpy. After we cut down some of the bigger bamboo, we headed to “Southeast Jeojeondong (仍向東南楮田洞). Between the tens of ri from the valley entrance to the central peak, there were three areas wide enough for tens of seomjigi of farmland. Also, there were three islands in front. Bangpaedo (防牌島) was the northern island, Jukdo (竹島) the middle, and Ongdo (翁島) was to the east. The distance between the three islands was only about 100 paces, and the circumference of each was tens of pa (把). They looked difficult to climb because the rocks were steep and very towering.”
“We slept there and on the 26th, we changed direction (reversed course) and went to Gajido (可支島), where we surprised four or five sea lions that dashed out. They looked like water cows. Our riflemen all fired at once and got two of them. The geographical features of the beach landing (丘尾津) was the strangest thing. We went about ten ri into the valley, where we found the remains of what were clearly ancient dwellings. On both sides, the hills and ravines were so deep that they were difficult to climb up.
Next we looked around several places, including Jukam (竹巖), Hupoam (帿布巖), Gongam (孔巖), and Chusan (錐山). Then we went to Tonggumi (通邱尾) and made offerings to the mountain and sea (gods). We stayed there and waited for the wind to die down.”
“Generally speaking, the circumference of the island is seventy to eighty ri from north to south and fifty to sixty ri from east to west. All four sides are stratified rock cliffs. There are remains of ancient dwelling in various places in the valleys around the island. Land suitable for rice paddies and fields totals in the hundreds of seomjigi. Trees on the island included juniper, Korean nut pine, amur cork, old pine, mulberry, and hazel. The main species of plants are dropwort, mallow, mugwort, ramie, and paper mulberry. In addition, there are strange trees and grasses that were difficult to record because their names were unknown. Birds on the island included wild geese, hawks, seagulls, and white herons. Furry animals were cats and rats. Sea products were only brown seaweed and abalone.”
“On the 30th, we boarded our ship and set sail. On the 8th of the new month, we returned to our home base. The products from the island were two seal skins, three trunks of common Korean bamboo, two blocks of rosewood incense, five doi of red ocher, and one map, which were all packaged and sealed and given to our superiors.”
I send this together with the products (mentioned above to the bibyeonsa (備邊司).”
Four ships carrying more than eighty men left for Ulleungdo at between 1 and 3 p.m. on April 21st. They ran into fog, rain, and heavy seas, and one ship appears to have been lost. The remaining ships arrived at Hwangto-gumi Landing (黃土丘尾津) sometime on the 22nd, which is a pretty fast crossing. Hwangtogumi was a beach on the northwest corner of Ulleungdo at or near present-day Taeha Harbor. You can see Hwangto-gumi (大黃土邱尾) on the following 1882 map of the northwest corner of Ulleungdo.
The report said that it was about thirty ri from the valley entrance to the central peak of the island. It also reported that the inspection party saw a cave, a waterfall, and a rock. The rock was called Byeongpung Rock (屛風石). It also said that Hyangmok Pavilion (香木亭) was up above the area. The waterfall, the cave, and the pavillion were also mentioned in this 1786 survey report of Ulleungdo.
On the 24th, the party sailed south and arrived at the Tong-gumi Landing (桶丘尾津). You can see Tong-gumi on the following 1882 map of the southwest corner of Ulleungdo:
The report described the valley at Tong-gumi as being “wooden-barrel” shaped and as having piled mounds of stone at the entrance. Those mounds of stone may have been graves. It also said that there was a large rock fifty paces offshore. Tong-gumi is still listed on Korean maps today, and the rock that was mentioned in the 1794 report was almost certainly present-day Geobuk Bawui (거북바위), which means “Turtle Rock.” You can see a picture of Turtle Rock here.
On the 25th, the inspection party sailed around the southern-most point of the island to Port Jangjakji (長斫之浦), which can also be seen on the 1882 map shown above. Port Jangjakji was probably located near or at present-day Sadong Harbor (사동항).
From Port Jangjakji, the report said the inspection party headed to “Southeast Jeojeon-dong” (仍向東南楮田洞), which suggests that there was more than one Jeojeon-dong. Actually, the following 1750s map shows a Jeojeon-dong (苧田洞) on the northeast corner of Ulleungdo, though the character for “Jeo” is different.
The “Jeojeon” (苧田) in Jeojeon-dong (苧田洞) just means “ramie field,” so it is possible that there were more such fields on the island. In fact, on present-day maps of Ulleungdo, there is a port on the southeast corner of Ulleungdo called Jeodong Harbor (苧洞港), which is probably where “Southeast Jeojeon-dong” (東南楮田洞) was located. Afterall, it would only require dropping the “field” (田) character to make the new name.
From Southeast Jeojeon-dong, the report said it was tens of ri from the valley entrance to the central peak. The report also said that three islands could be seen from Southeast Jeojeon-dong. The northern island was Bangpaedo (防牌島), which I believe was present-day Gwaneumdo. The middle island was Jukdo (竹島), which was most likely present-day Jukdo. And the island just to the east of Southeast Jeojeon-dong was Ongdo(瓮島), which means “Pot Island.” In pure Korean, Ongdo would be pronounced as Dokseom (독섬), and in mixed Sino-Korean and pure Korea, it would be “Dokdo” (독도).
If Southeast Jeojeon-dong were present-day Jeodong Harbor, that would mean that Ongdo (Dokdo) was either present-day Chotdae-am (촛대암), which is right in front of Jeodong Harbor, or present-day Bukjeo Bawui (북저바위), which is farther out in the water. Here is a picture that shows Gwaneumdo (觀音島), Jukdo (竹島), and Bukjeo Bawui (북저바위) all together. The problem with the description of the three islands, however, is that the report said that they were only about 100 paces apart from each other, which is not the case.
The report said that on the 26th, the inspection party changed directions, which can mean they reversed course, and headed to Gajido (轉向可支島). This suggests that Gajido (可支島) was somewhere back in the direction that had come, which means they headed back southwest. I think they were heading back to either the southern tip of Ulleungdo or to Seal Cave on the west side of the island. They may have missed the opportunity to kill some sea lions on their first trip around the point and went back hoping to surprise any sea lions that had come back up out of the water.
Interestingly, the Korean translation does not say the inspection party changed or reversed course, but just said “they went to Gajido” [가지도(可支島)로 가니...] I wonder why?
At Gajido, the inspection party surprised four or five sea lions that “suddenly dashed out” (驚駭躍出). Here is the relevant passage:
We slept there (Southeast Jeojeondong), and on the 26th, we changed direction (reversed course) and went to Gajido (可支島), where we surprised four or five sea lions that dashed out. They looked like water buffalo. Our riflemen all fired at once and got two of them. The geographical features of the beach landing (丘尾津) was the strangest thing. We went about ten ri into the valley, where we found the remains of what were clearly ancient dwellings. On both sides, the hills and ravines were so high and deep that they were difficult to climb up.
If the sea lions were surprised by the inspection party, they would have dashed “into the water,” not dashed “out of it.” That suggests that the sea lions came out of something, possibly a cave. If it were a cave, it would probably be the same cave that the sea lions dashed out of during the 1886 inspection. Here is the relevant passage from that inspection:
We advanced to Gaji Beach (可支仇味) and found two caves in the side of the mountain. It was too difficult to calculate their depth. We surprised some sea lions that dashed out (of a cave). All our riflemen fired at once and got two of them before they could get into the water.”
Notice that immediately after the 1794 report said they killed two sea lions, it started describing Gumi Landing (丘尾津), which just means something like “beach landing.” In other words, it seemed to be describing the beach at Gajido (可支島), not some new beach since the beach was not named. So far all the beach landings have had, at least, a 1-character name in front of gumi (丘尾), which seems to mean “beach.” For example, Hwangto-gumi (黃土丘尾) and Tong-gumi (桶丘尾) are Hwangto Beach and Tong Beach, respectively. Therefore, by simply saying Gumi Landing (丘尾津), we can assume the report was talking about the beach where they killed the seal lions, which could have been the “Gaji-gumi” (可支仇味) mentioned in the 1786 survey report. By the way, “Gaji-gumi” means “Seal Beach.” Anyway, if it were referring to the beach they were at, then it would mean that they could not have been at “Dokdo” since the report said they walked ten ri into the valley in front of the beach. Ten ri would be about four kilometers, which is longer than the whole island of “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks), much less any valley on “Dokdo.” Besides, the report also said that there were remains of ancient dwellings, which would also help to eliminate “Dokdo.”
It seems obvious from the above description that Gajido (可支島) was not a reference to “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks). It is simply ridiculous for the Korean government to claim that Gajido (可支島) was an old name for “Dokdo” based only on the mention of “sea lions,” given the fact that sea lions were also found on Ulleungdo.
After Gajido (可支島), the report summaries the rest of their inspection by saying they visited the rocks off the north shore of Ulleungdo and then went back to Tong-gumi (桶丘尾) on the southwest side of the island to wait for calm weather to sail back to the Korean mainland. They finally set sail on April 30th and arrived back at their home base on May 8th, which means it took them more than a week to get back.
The report said that Ulleungdo was seventy to eighty ri from north to south and fifty to sixty ri from east to west, but I am not sure how they got those measurements since the report only mentioned their taking two measurements.
Also, though the 1786 report mentioned sea lions as part of the products found on Ulleungdo, sea lions were not included on the initial list of products in the 1794 report. The report, however, did mention that sea lion skins were part of the products brought back from Ulleungdo.
Even if people do not agree completely with my interpretation of the above report, there is nothing in the report, except the mention of sea lions, that suggests that Gajido (可支島) was a reference to “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks). But sea lions were also found on Ulleungdo, so it is ridiculous to make such a claim. Moreover, there was other evidence in the report that tells us that Gajido could not have been “Dokdo,” including mention of a valley near Gajido that was at least four kilometers in length, which is longing than the whole island of Ulleungdo.
Gajido (可支島) was almost certainly a place on or just offshore of Ulleungdo. The Korean government should be ashamed of itself for claiming that it was an old name for “Dokdo.”
Links to More Posts on Takeshima/Dokdo (With Japanese translations)
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 1
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 2
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 3
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 4
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 4 Supplement
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 5
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 6
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 7
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 8
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 9
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 10
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 11
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 1
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 2
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 2 Supplement
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 3
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 4
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 5
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 6
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 7
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 8
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 9
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 10
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 11
Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 12