Gerry posted about a Japan Focus article about Kenkanryu – “The Hate Korea Wave”.

Besides the hysterical spin, there are some glaring inaccuracies in the article.

Quotes from the article -

The internet has become an increasingly influential medium throughout East Asia. In this article we examine the case of Kenkanryu (‘”Hating ‘The Korean Wave’”), a manga published in 2005 in hard copy, but available online as a web comic for many months prior to print publication.

Ah, no, it does not mean “Hating ‘The Korean Wave’”. Kenkanryu actually has nothing to with the Korean Wave, and certainly nothing to do with hating it. As I explain here, “Kenkanryu” is a play on words and it means “The Hate Korea Wave”, as in a wave of hating Korea. It is saddening to see that one of the authors of the article is called “Rumi Sakamoto”, a Japanese name, which indicates to me that the Japanese education system is in such a poor state that things simply explained in a comic go misunderstood by Japanese natives. Although I am but a humble foreigner, I would like to offer to instruct her on the subtleties of the Japanese language.

Of course, they have a reason for saying that it means “Hating ‘The Korean Wave’” – it is the color and font style of the character 嫌. So rather than reading the content of the manga and using common sense for interpreting the meaning of the title, we have a bizarre interpretation of colors and font style.

[1] The title means “Hating ‘The Korean Wave’” rather than ‘The Hating Korea Wave’, as indicated by the different color and font used for the letter ‘ken’, or ‘hate’).

Ironically, the authors of the article make the same elementary mistake concerning Kenkanryu as was made by the Korean media. Japanese wikipedia makes the meaning of “Kenkanryu” clear -

なお、韓国では「嫌・韓流」として受け止められ、いわゆる『韓流』に対する反感本だと勘違いされていることが多いが、その内容は「嫌韓・流」である。

Translation: Furthermore, in Korea Kenkanryu is mistaken to be “Ken Kanryu” (hating the Korean wave), a book expressing antipathy towards the so called “Korean wave”. The subject matter is “Kenkan ryu” (the hate Korea wave).

Here is the relevant text explaining the meaning of “Kenkanryu”. It is on page 271.

explaining kenkanryu

The text says 現在マスコミでは「韓流」などと友好を演出しているが、水面下では韓国を嫌う日本人が急増している。マスコミが隠しているもう一つの韓流、それが・・・・・・「嫌韓流」だ!!

The translation: Nowadays the massmedia is promoting ‘the Korean wave’ and the like for friendship, but behind that Japanese people that dislike Korea are growing in numbers. There is one more ‘Korean wave’ that the massmedia is hiding, that is… ‘the hate Korea wave’!!

It is a pun on the Korean Wave, but that is it. It is just trying to warn of anti-Korean sentiments being created by anti-Japanese activism in South Korea.

Although it is unrelated to the content of the “The Hate Korea Wave”, the authors even manage to spin a classic conspiracy theory of the guys in black trucks really being in charge of Japan through their “close ties” with politicians, media and academia.

Though representing voices of a minority, these new-wave nationalists are strident, their messages amplified (often literally by loudspeakers on trucks!) through close ties with dominant conservative groups within the long-ruling Liberal Democratic Party, as well as within media and academia.

In the meantime, the authors spend their time trying to stigmatize Kenkanryu as reflective of nationalism among Japanese youth. “Nationalism” and its variants, “nationalistic” and “nationalist” are peppered throughout the article, appearing 54 times, and is in fact the the dominant word of the text as the only words beating it are “Kenkanyu” (the subject of the article), “Japan(ese)”, “Korea(n)”, and “media”. Just in case you miss the point the authors are pushing, the authors assure us that nationalist sentiment among Japanese people is “toxic”.

This essay looks at Kenkanryu, an anti-Korean comic book published in 2005 to address the two factors that contribute to the new toxic nationalism: the construction of the enemy figure and the popularity of this manga. The first section analyses the ideological structure of the manga itself, focusing on its representations of Korea and Koreans as Japan’s Other. The second section looks at the process by which Kenkanryu became a bestseller.

Indeed. Of course, they have chosen to justify their claim of “toxic nationalism” by providing some links to newspaper articles.

There is no doubt that Kenkanryu is a parochial, ‘toxic’ nationalistic and anti-Korean work, as has been reported in a number of English-language media.[6]

Yes, so because someone somewhere said it, it must be true, to be endlessly repeated in the echo chamber of incestuous amplification by like minded individuals.

The authors continue to assert that Kenkanryu is a backlash against the Korean wave.

Secondly and more immediately, Kenkanryu appeared partly as a backlash against the hype of the ’Korean Wave’ (hanryu) that Japan was, and in fact still is, going through.

This is incorrect. Kenkanryu does not attack the Korean wave, rather Kenkanryu owes its existence to the Korean wave, for as interest in Korea grew, people began to find out about the negative aspects of Korea, in particular the anti-Japanese sentiment that is prevalent in South Korea. Kenkanryu is a backlash – but it is a backlash against anti-Japanese sentiment in South Korea, not against the Korean wave. The failure of the authors to put this in its appropriate context is unforgivable.

How can so called scholars write about controversial subject matter when they cannot even get some basic facts right, like the meaning of the title of a manga? If an average Joe from Sydney can punch holes into the arguments of people that are supposed to be academics specialising in Japan, you know there is a big problem. There are two authors of the article, one Matt Allen (who by his name I suppose is non-Japanese), and Rumi Sakamoto, who sounds Japanese to me. Matt Allen I am more forgiving of, because people say and write stupid things about other people and cultures all the time, owing to their limited perceptions, language abilities, and contact with the natives. Sakamoto Rumi on the other hand should know better. Shame on you.

Articles on Occidentalism about Kenkanryu -

Initial review of Kenkanryu
Kenkanryu in the New York Times
A ‘final’ word on Kenkanryu
A full copy of Kenkanryu, translated into Korean

Posted by Matt, filed under finger chopping wacky, Racist Industrial Complex. Date: October 6, 2007, 12:30 am | 103 Comments »

103 Responses

  1. General Tiger Says:

    The only thing I picked up from this thread: They can’t even get the meaning of the title right!.
    .
    But then, if one can’t get the meaning of the title correctly, it’ll be hard to trust their judgement of the book itself.
    .
    I’ll reserve my thoughts on Kenkanryu for another time.

  2. jion999 Says:

    I believe Rumi Sakamoto made a false representation of kenkanryu intentionally.
    It is a usual rhetoric of Japanese leftists or Korean Japanese.
    If they take the meaning of kenkanryu as it is, they have to make mention about terrible anti-Japan sentiment of Koreans which they like to hide from foreign people.
    They try to attack Japanese nationalism only and ignore Korean nationalism.

  3. GarlicBreath Says:

    Yes, so because someone somewhere said it, it must be true, to be endlessly repeated in the echo chamber of incestuous amplification by like minded individuals

    The chauvinistic Corean echo chamber is deafening.

  4. Matt Says:

    The chauvinistic Corean echo chamber is deafening.

    Neither of the authors were Korean, though.

  5. General Tiger Says:

    GarlicBreath:

    The chauvinistic Corean echo chamber is deafening.

    You should try reading the article first. *Rolls eyes*

  6. GarlicBreath Says:

    Neither of the authors were Korean, though.

    But I am sure they get their informtion and bias from the corean propagand machine.

  7. Matt Says:

    But I am sure they get their informtion and bias from the corean propagand machine.

    That may be so, but as academics supposedly specialising in Japan, it is up to them to find the correct information. I am not going to blame propaganda for poor scholarship.

  8. Japan focus article reported in Korean media · Occidentalism Says:

    [...] « Follow up on Gerry’s Japan focus post [...]

  9. Sweet Water Says:

    How can so called scholars write about controversial subject matter when they cannot even get some basic facts right, like the meaning of the title of a manga?

    .
    Matt, I cannot agree with you more. Let me also emphasize that this is a refereed article in Asian studies. The editor and referees are also responsible for accepting this paper without revisions. Maybe, a field like Asian studies cannot attract any serious scholars. . .
    .
    Kjeff, regarding your comment, we can certainly tell if an egg is rotten without eating all of it.

  10. kjeff Says:

    Matt,

    This is incorrect. Kenkanryu does not attack the Korean wave, rather Kenkanryu owes its existence to the Korean wave, for as interest in Korea grew, people began to find out about the negative aspects of Korea, in particular the anti-Japanese sentiment that is prevalent in South Korea. Kenkanryu is a backlash – but it is a backlash against anti-Japanese sentiment in South Korea, not against the Korean wave. The failure of the authors to put this in its appropriate context is unforgivable.

    This is incorrect. I don’t think the authors claimed that Kenkanryu ‘attacks’ the Korean wave, their view is actually not unlike yours, that “Kenkanryu owes its existence to the Korean wave,” as stated below:

    Yamano’s position seems to be that those who find Korean popular culture attractive, fashionable, cool and hip, do not know the ‘true’ Korea, and his comics shows the ‘other side’ of Korea.

    The difference -between theirs and yours- is that you naively argued, “as interest in Korea grew, people began to find out,” which presuppose that they are ‘new’ and ‘obvious’. They, on the other hand, argued that the content is “a simplified representation of revisionist history combined with fragments of negative information on Korea available on the internet.”

    Ah, no, it does not mean “Hating ‘The Korean Wave’”. Kenkanryu actually has nothing to with the Korean Wave, and certainly nothing to do with hating it. As I explain here, “Kenkanryu” is a play on words and it means “The Hate Korea Wave”, as in a wave of hating Korea. It is saddening to see that one of the authors of the article is called “Rumi Sakamoto”, a Japanese name, which indicates to me that the Japanese education system is in such a poor state that things simply explained in a comic go misunderstood by Japanese natives. Although I am but a humble foreigner, I would like to offer to instruct her on the subtleties of the Japanese language.

    Ah, no, the authors did not claim that the content of the article is about hating ‘the Korean wave’. And since you seem to have read the article, you must know that they too thought that the Korean wave was a mere context and not content; there’s a reason why the explanation of the title was given in the footnote, and not the body. Barring your explanation of “pun” and “play on words,”(except calling it such, I still don’t get it) it’s hard to argue that the title, and I mean the title, and not the content, means anything other than “Hating the Korean Wave.” I guess my big question is why play with words…if the content is, as you explained in the earlier thread, of the mainstream-media-absence ‘Hating Korea’ wave, why not title it that way? Why not give ‘Ryu’(I’m guessing, this is ‘wave’) a different font color?

    Just in case you miss the point the authors are pushing, the authors assure us that nationalist sentiment among Japanese people is “toxic”.

    First of all, “toxic” was used to decorate “nationalism.” If the authors were arguing that, as you claimed, “nationalist sentiment among Japanese people is “toxic”,” then the adjective became a redundancy, as it should be inherent in the word “nationalism.” I don’t know about you, but to me, be it reactionary or “they did it first,” any “anti-()” movement is toxic, and since, as you claimed, Kenkanryu is not about hating the Korean wave(which may be of personal taste; for example, I hate “Winter Sonata”), but about hating Korea, how is it not “toxic” ‘brand’ of “nationalism”? And, I don’t mean in the sense of “how can you hate KOREA,” but in the “how can you generalize countless aspects of culture, people and country in one single umbrella?” Don’t tell me…you’re not going to start to backpedal and say that Kenkanryu is really not about hating Korea, it’s really about the truth about Korea?
    .
    So far, all these comments…none actually examining the content of the article. A shame really…
    .
    For those who are too lazy to read the whole article, the authors’ fundamental problem with Kenkanryu:

    The fundamental problem, however, lies in the way the comic organizes knowledge on ‘Korea’ and ‘the Koreans’ into an apparently coherent whole. Korea and the Koreans are essentialised, homogenised, and ahistoricised in a string of problematic historical events, actions, and episodes that dismiss important historical distinctions. Rarely differentiating between Korean administrations, citizens, culture, or business, Kenkanryu creates an impression that a large number of disparate issues—Korea’s claim to Takeshima/Dokdo Island, fishing boats entering Japanese waters, a children’s anti-Japanese art exhibition, imitation snack food, zainichi ‘privileges’, the conflict between Korean and African-American communities at the time of the Los Angels riots, the adoption of hangul, and the stem cell cloning scandal—all emanate from and exemplify the negative essence of Korea. A given fact presented in the book may or may not be true, but when compiled together and presented as the whole ‘truth’ of ‘Korea’, the result is a work that fundamentally caricatures and distorts the nature of South Korean society. Complex issues are repeatedly reduced to and sensationalized in a few provocative phrases. This is shown in the cover of volume 2: ‘fabrication of history, theft of culture, anti-Japanese policies, discriminatory thinking, invasion of territory, plundering natural resources, suppression of freedom of speech, brain-washing education … An unbelievably rotten country, that is Korea!!’

    Spooky…how similar most of the comments on this blog to the above…
    Note: The authors argued the above after conceding this,

    This does not mean, however, that everything it says is factually wrong or fabricated. Extreme comments like ‘there is no civilization … that Korea can be proud of’ (125-26) aside, there are many ‘facts’ that are widely acknowledged by academics.

  11. Brian Says:

    We all know the reason this Manga was written and became popular is because of the jealously and insecurity of Japanese nationalists of Korean successes. These nationalists couldn’t stand the notion that Korean entertainment or “wave” was becoming such a following in Japan. It hurt their pride that Koreans were being idolized by their fellow Japanese and that even many of Japan’s most famous entertainers were zainichi Korean. On the other hand, their insecurity extended to the fact that Korea was competing and in many instances, surpassing Japan on the World’s technological products stage. For example, Samsung outperforming all Japan’s elite electronic makers or Korea’s shipbuilding industry. Finally, the fact that Korea fosters anti-Japanese sentiment was the final straw in hurting the Japanese nationalist’s only sense of pride (their nationalism), which put these insecure dimwits on a campaign to forever, irrationally hate and slander Korea.

    I’m sorry for people like Garlic-face whose only sense of self-esteem exists in the hope of Japanese superiority. It’s too bad that the Korean success will continue to rival Japan, since this will stimulate more jealousy and insecurity in these people undermining the only source of their pathetic self-esteem, their nationalism. Yes, I’m talking to people like you Garlic-face.

  12. Sweet Water Says:

    Brian,
    .
    This is the exact reaction I expected from a Korean. Thank you for fulfiling my prophecy!

  13. Sweet Water Says:

    jion999,

    I believe Rumi Sakamoto made a false representation of kenkanryu intentionally. It is a usual rhetoric of Japanese leftists or Korean Japanese.

    I believe so, too. She has a savory smell.
    .
    Dr Rumi Sakamoto – Publications

  14. Matt Says:

    Kjeff, have you read Kenkanryu?

  15. kjeff Says:

    Matt,

    Kjeff, have you read Kenkanryu?

    No, I haven’t.
    BTW, because of that, I was being careful not to comment on Kenkanryu itself, as evident in my comment above.

  16. Matt Says:

    No, I haven’t.
    BTW, because of that, I was being careful not to comment on Kenkanryu itself, as evident in my comment above.

    Then how do you know that I “naively argued” such and such without having an objective reference on which to decide? Bizarre. While I “naively argue” they simply “argue”. For someone that has not read Kenkanryu, you sure as hell have a firm conviction about who is right on this issue.

    Go and read the Korean version of Kenkanryu, then come back and comment. I do not like to debate with unqualified people.

  17. jion999 Says:

    Sweet Water

    Thank you for the link you showed.
    She wrote about comfort women, too.
    I know.
    It is a usual phenomena.
    Japan’s war crime bashing, Japan’s nationalism bashing, and feminism.
    They are usual topics Japanese leftists go bananas.

  18. kjeff Says:

    Matt,
    To put things in perspective, this is the particular to which I accuse you of having naively argued,

    “as interest in Korea grew, people began to find out,”

    “BEGAN(new) to FIND OUT(obvious)? Really? And, that’s the only one; I guess that makes it ‘such’ and not “such an such.” lol.

    For someone that has not read Kenkanryu, you sure as hell have a firm conviction about who is right on this issue.

    What issue? If you read my comment again, I never wrote anything on the content of Kenkanryu. YOU wrote a thread that, in my point of view, misrepresented the content of the article, and I was simply responding to those.
    .
    If they said it’s green, and you said that they said it’s blue, do I really need to see what color ‘it’ is to know that they didn’t say blue?

    Go and read the Korean version of Kenkanryu, then come back and comment. I do not like to debate with unqualified people.

    I would if there were an English translation available. Reading in Korean takes a lot of effort and time, and I’m not that interested. Frankly, I’m not interested in Kenkanryu, or talking about the content; it’s probably been done here dozens of time. I am interested however on how people attack the Japan Focus’ article without actually reading it, or in your case, reading it without ‘getting’ it, like this:

    So rather than reading the content of the manga and using common sense for interpreting the meaning of the title, we have a bizarre interpretation of colors and font style.

    as a response to this:

    The title means “Hating ‘The Korean Wave’” rather than ‘The Hating Korea Wave’, as indicated by the different color and font used for the letter ‘ken’, or ‘hate’

    Tell me, just the title…forget about the content for a second, should it be literally translated as “Hating-Korea Wave?”

  19. jion999 Says:

    Noisy kjeff. (笑)

  20. Matt Says:

    Kjeff, how am I not “getting” it? My answer in response to their analysis of the meaning of the title based on color and font was reasonable, and here is the reason why. Their assertion that the different color and font establishes the meaning of the three characters of the title is completely arbitrary, and follows no established rule or custom that I have ever heard of. Therefore, the only reason they have for asserting that Kenkanryu means ‘”Hating ‘The Korean Wave’” is just because they say so.

    Tell me, just the title…forget about the content for a second, should it be literally translated as “Hating-Korea Wave?”

    Neither. It is “The Hate Korea Wave”.

  21. jion999 Says:

    kjeff

    As Matt-san wrote, the title is “a pun on the Korean Wave”.
    Japanese prefer such kind of pun.
    All Japanese know it.
    Some Japanese leftists try to interpret it as “Hating-Korea Wave” and deem the anti- Korea sentiment of Japanese as “jealously against Koreans”.
    This idea is convenient for them because they don’t like to mention about the real reason of the anti- Korea sentiment of Japanese.
    kjeff
    If some people continue to burn your mother counry flags again and again, do you like it?

  22. GarlicBreath Says:

    Blian:
    On the other hand, their insecurity extended to the fact that Korea was competing and in many instances, surpassing Japan on the World’s technological products stage. For example, Samsung outperforming all Japan’s elite electronic makers

    Typical arrogance from a blind nationalist corean.

    Lets take a look at the facts:

    Great Corean electronic companies:
    Besides SamDung and LG, how many companies has anybody heard of? LG= Low quality Garbage

    Now Japanese Electronic Companies

    Notice any difference? Well take a look at some of the names.

    Sony, Casio, Hitachi, Toshiba, NEC, TDK, JVC, Panasonic, Roland, Fujitsu, Canon, Sharp, Fujifilm, Rohm, Plextor, Korg, Pioneer, Kyocera, Konica Minolta, Maxell, Mitsubishi, Technics, Ricoh, Pentax, Olympus, Nintendo, Sanyo, Epson, Nikon, Yamaha, Seiko, Citizen Watch, Kenwood and more.

    lol.. quit lying to yourself Blian. SamDung and LG will vanish in 10 years.
    .
    Corean product are only going to be around for a few more years. China will gobble up the low end market and the cheep corean garbage will be replaced with chinese products. Good bye SamDung.

  23. kjeff Says:

    Matt,

    Neither. It is “The Hate Korea Wave”.

    Is this possible in English language? What’s the noun? And, what’s the adjective? From your source,

    The subject matter is “Kenkan ryu” (the hate Korea wave).

    Hmmm…if ‘ken’ and ‘kan’ are group together, then, what’s wrong with “The Hating-Korea Wave?”

    My answer in response to their analysis of the meaning of the title based on color and font was reasonable, and here is the reason why. Their assertion that the different color and font establishes the meaning of the three characters of the title is completely arbitrary, and follows no established rule or custom that I have ever heard of. Therefore, the only reason they have for asserting that Kenkanryu means ‘”Hating ‘The Korean Wave’” is just because they say so.

    Arbitrary? Please… Was the choice of ‘kan’ and ‘ryu’ having the same font color arbitrary? Try explaining that.

  24. Matt Says:

    Is this possible in English language? What’s the noun? And, what’s the adjective? From your source,

    What am I your English teacher? I hope you have a good reason to be asking this. Hate can be a verb or noun, Korea is a noun, and wave is a noun.

    Hmmm…if ‘ken’ and ‘kan’ are group together, then, what’s wrong with “The Hating-Korea Wave?”

    Wait a minute. Are you saying now that you do not agree with the authors of the article that it is ‘”Hating ‘The Korean Wave’”? That you are now saying Kenkanryu means “The Hating-Korea Wave”? I want to see if you actually have a position, or whether you are just being contrarian.

    Arbitrary? Please… Was the choice of ‘kan’ and ‘ryu’ having the same font color arbitrary? Try explaining that.

    I do not know, do you? If you do not, then it is arbitrary. Unless you can point to pre-existing custom or established rule.

  25. kjeff Says:

    Matt,

    Wait a minute. Are you saying now that you do not agree with the authors of the article that it is ‘”Hating ‘The Korean Wave’”? That you are now saying Kenkanryu means “The Hating-Korea Wave”? I want to see if you actually have a position, or whether you are just being contrarian.

    This,

    Hmmm…if ‘ken’ and ‘kan’ are group together, then, what’s wrong with “The Hating-Korea Wave?”

    was simply a response to this,

    Neither. It is “The Hate Korea Wave”.

    It baffles me that you don’t accept both “Hating The Korean Wave” and “The Hating-Korea Wave,” and instead choose an ambiguous English translation, “The Hate Korea Wave.” The reason I asked you what the noun and adjective were was because I want to know how you create(group) your compound adjective, as I said, “The Hate Korea Wave” is ambiguous. The ‘-ing’ form in “The Hating-Korea Wave” creates, even if you don’t hyphenate, a compound participial adjective(albeit, reverse) between ‘hate’ and ‘Korea’ that is clear. Or, are we talking about the same thing, and you just hate the ‘-ing’ form, and lazy to put the hyphenate that is “The Hate-Korea Wave?”

    I do not know, do you? If you do not, then it is arbitrary. Unless you can point to pre-existing custom or established rule.

    Matt…Matt…Matt,
    The author/publisher of Kenkanryu chose to have ‘kan’ and ‘ryu’ in the same color, and I think we can both agree that they didn’t do so arbitrarily, ala “Well, it’d be nice if ‘kan’ and ‘ryu’ have the same color; it’s prettier,” no? The authors of article simply followed a common logic in their explanation that if two things are of the same color, that are in different color than the other, then the two must have a more ‘immediate’ relationship to each other. When you say that it’s not, is it not that the burden falls on you to explain why?

  26. Matt Says:

    It baffles me that you don’t accept both “Hating The Korean Wave” and “The Hating-Korea Wave,” and instead choose an ambiguous English translation, “The Hate Korea Wave.”

    Which one is it, kjeff? Choose one, then I will knock your position down.

    Matt…Matt…Matt,
    The author/publisher of Kenkanryu chose to have ‘kan’ and ‘ryu’ in the same color, and I think we can both agree that they didn’t do so arbitrarily, ala “Well, it’d be nice if ‘kan’ and ‘ryu’ have the same color; it’s prettier,” no?

    The point is we do not know so we cannot agree on anything. They could have thought that “hate” works better in the color red, for example. That is irrelevant however, as the meaning of “kenkanryu” is quite deliberately explained in page 271 of the comic.

    The authors of article simply followed a common logic in their explanation that if two things are of the same color, that are in different color than the other, then the two must have a more ‘immediate’ relationship to each other. When you say that it’s not, is it not that the burden falls on you to explain why?

    That might be the kind of logic held by Korean-Americans like yourself, but do not project that on to me or my people. Also, the burden is not on me to debunk a claim, but on the person making a claim to firmly establish it.

  27. kjeff Says:

    Matt,

    Which one is it, kjeff? Choose one, then I will knock your position down.

    If it’s not obvious, you should really question your reading skill because this,

    Tell me, just the title…forget about the content for a second, should it be literally translated as “The Hating-Korea Wave?”

    …should have been a rhetorical…(‘No’ should be the obvious answer), BUT, to you…

    They could have thought that “hate” works better in the color red, for example.

    And, I guess somehow they thought ‘ken’(hate) worked better in different style too. Come on…that’s just laughable.

    That is irrelevant however…

    Because you can’t find a good explanation on the cover title without referring to a passage, 271 pages into the book.

    That might be the kind of logic held by Korean-Americans like yourself, but do not project that on to me or my people. Also, the burden is not on me to debunk a claim, but on the person making a claim to firmly establish it.

    Whoa, that’s not your logic? So I guess if ‘hate’ is italic(as ‘ken’ is in a different font style than ‘kan’ and ‘ryu’) and ‘Korea’ and ‘wave’ are in plain font, you still don’t think that ‘Korea’ and ‘wave’ should be group together? I guess my logic SHOULD be different than yours. lol. BTW, who are these “my people?” Are you sure they are ‘your’ people? Knock that down…

  28. Brian Says:

    Garlic-Face said:

    lol.. quit lying to yourself Blian. SamDung and LG will vanish in 10 years.

    http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/oct2007/tc2007103_589207.htm

    Sure, keep crying you Jealous and Insecure little boy. I mean that’s all you do on this site anyways right? Cry baby cry.. lol

    Amusing as usual.

  29. Sweet Water Says:

    Kjeff,

    So I guess if ‘hate’ is italic(as ‘ken’ is in a different font style than ‘kan’ and ‘ryu’) and ‘Korea’ and ‘wave’ are in plain font, you still don’t think that ‘Korea’ and ‘wave’ should be group together?

    It is impossible to translate a book title to another language 100% acculately, but, the natural translation of “Kenkanryu” is either “the Wave of Disliking Korea” or “the Dislike-of-Korea Wave.”
    .
    I would use “dislike” rather than “hate,” because the latter is much stronger than the word (chinese character) “ken.” The last term “ryu” is more often translated as “school” in martial arts as well as other classic arts. E.g., Suio-ryu swordsman Ogami Itto, Sougetu-ryu flower arrangement, etc. So, it is natural to write “Kenkan-ryu” rather than “Ken-kanryu,” although you may not get the sense.
    .
    Then, why did the author of the manga use a different color and font for “Ken”? As Matt has already and repeatedly explained to you, the author borrowed the term “Kanryu,” which was then heavily promoted by Japanese media, and he tried to emphasize the difference by using a different font.
    .
    The title could be “Kenkan-Manual” or “Kenkan-nyumon (the Introduction of Kenkan),” but these would not have an eye-catching effect that “Kenkan-ryu” had.

  30. Sweet Water Says:

    Brian,
    .
    Do you really think you can convince others of the Korean superiority in technology by citing an article written by a native Korean educated/resided in Korea? The existence of this article seems to support GarlicBreath’s claim:

    Typical arrogance from a blind nationalist corean.

  31. Brian Says:

    First of all, I like how you assume I’m Koraen. If you bothered to ask, You’d find out that I am Chinese.

    Secondly, I’ve have never said anything that is nationalistic or arrogant. I simply just voicing my logical opinion why people like garlic-face have to so much hate for Korea.

    The fact that you have made these assumption shows your insecurities as well. Are you another immature, biased individual? I hope not.

  32. Matt Says:

    小Brian,你是中国人不是?我可以问吗?你为什么对韩国有意思?

  33. jion999 Says:

    Brian
    “I simply just voicing my logical opinion ”
    logical?………ha.ha.ha

  34. GarlicBreath Says:

    Tiawon and China agree: Too much kimuchi on TV.

  35. General Tiger Says:

    GarlicBreath:

    Taiwon and China agree: Too much kimchi on TV.

    Or rather, not enough dim sums.

  36. Brian Says:

    Matt.. just because I am from Chinese heritage does not mean I read and write Chinese. Did you not know that Canadians of Chinese-heritage are able to access this site as well?

    Btw, my girlfriend is Korean and I have many Korean friends, so I naturally have an interest in Korea and Asia in general. And I think what takes place on this site causes a disgust that transcends ethnic backgrounds or national boundries.

  37. GarlicBreath Says:

    Matt.. just because I am from Chinese heritage does not mean I read and write Chinese.

    Arn’t all Coreans from china, if you go back far enough? :) KAK! I suppose on the internet, you are who you say you are, because we cannot prove otherwise. However. you don’t seem to read write or understand English very well, so I have real doubts that you are a real Canadian. You also seem to be full of bitter hatred and Corean “han”. Along with that you seem to hate Japanese, which is uncommon among Canadians.

    And I think what takes place on this site causes a disgust that transcends ethnic backgrounds or national boundries.

    You have been trolling this blog for quite sometime. If you are really disgusted, why not discuss the facts instead of trolling and making anti-Japanese remarks.

  38. alec931 Says:

    gorl: “you don’t seem to read write or understand English very well”
    .
    That, my friends, is a prime example of “pot calling the kettle black.”

  39. YoshoMasaki Says:

    kjeff said:

    ‘Ryu’(I’m guessing, this is ‘wave’)

    Do you mean to say, my good sir, that you are arguing the meaning of an utterance of a language which you can only “guess” the meaning of? And further, that you are doing so against accomplished non-native and native speakers of said language?

    Preposterous!

  40. alec931 Says:

    YoshoMasaki,
    .
    You’re so obnoxious, it’s funny. Korean and Japanese have pretty much identical grammatical identical structures (I know very little of both languages, but that I’m sure of)…and ‘kenkanryu’ is based on Chinese characters, which is more or less carries the same meaning in Korean (kjeff knows Korean btw).
    .
    And maybe it’s just me, but kjeff seems to be talking more about the article that criticizes Kenkanryu (which is written in English), rather than the Kenkanryu book, itself. ;)

  41. HanComplex Says:

    Do you mean to say, my good sir, that you are arguing the meaning of an utterance of a language which you can only “guess” the meaning of? And further, that you are doing so against accomplished non-native and native speakers of said language?Preposterous!

    Not really that preposterous considering that it’s kjeff doing the “arguing.” That’s why Gerry considers him dishonest.
    .
    Also, it’s worth mentioning that the majority of Koreans are illiterate in Chinese characters. That wasn’t the case several decades ago, but because of ultranationalism all they can read now is their kiddie writing system which even scholars in King Sejong’s time deemed fit for a restroom. So it’s pointless arguing with hanja/kanji/hanzi illiterates who can only guess the meaning of characters.

  42. General Tiger Says:

    Garlic:

    Samsung and LG will vanish in 10 years.

    Maybe. We’ll see what happens in the coming eletric war.
    .
    HanComplex:

    Also, it’s worth mentioning that the majority of Koreans are illiterate in Chinese characters.

    There is such a thing as a 玉篇. You don’t actually have to remember all those characters. (Although I do so for my own pleasure). Seriously, you DO have a complex, lol.

  43. Matt Says:

    Matt.. just because I am from Chinese heritage does not mean I read and write Chinese. Did you not know that Canadians of Chinese-heritage are able to access this site as well?

    Sorry, not my intention to offend. You wrote that you were Chinese, and I assumed it meant your nationality.

  44. Sweet Water Says:

    General Tiger,

    There is such a thing as a 玉篇. You don’t actually have to remember all those characters.

    Then, do you understand that the Chinese character “ryu” as in “hanryu” does not have any such meaning as “wave”? I think you do, but the majority of young Koreans as well as Kjeff probably don’t…

  45. kjeff Says:

    Yoshomasaki,

    Do you mean to say, my good sir, that you are arguing the meaning of an utterance of a language which you can only “guess” the meaning of? And further, that you are doing so against accomplished non-native and native speakers of said language?

    Preposterous!

    My good sir, I can’t read and write Japanese, but I’m OK in Korean. That means, as Alec931 pointed out, with a little help from the dictionary, I should be able to understand a three-word phrase such as “Kenkanryu” with relative accuracy. The reason that I put “guess” there is because I’m not familiar, except for ‘HanRyu,’ the usage of ‘ryu’ as ‘wave.’ I originally, as most non-Japanese speaker, knew it as ‘school’(as in Iwama-Ryu, the aikido style my brother practices) In Korean language, I recognize it as part of compound words, the only ones I can think of, of various electrical currents(‘JeonRyu’, ‘ryu’ being ‘a flow,’ in this case, electric).
    .
    Sweet Water,
    Actually…well, I’m not that young, but I didn’t grow up in Korea, or learning Korean for that matter, that’s my excuse.

  46. General Tiger Says:

    Sweet Water:

    Then, do you understand that the Chinese character “ryu” as in “hanryu” does not have any such meaning as “wave”?

    You mean in the context of 韓流? Of course, most people know it’s used as “trend” in this case.
    .
    Also, for your information, Kjeff isn’t Korean (as far as I know)

  47. Brian Says:

    Sorry, not my intention to offend. You wrote that you were Chinese, and I assumed it meant your nationality.

    None taken. In a multicultural country like Canada, it’s easy to see how absurd generalizations are when all the people you meet are unique individuals coming from a variety of ethnic backgrounds.

  48. randomcow Says:

    Sorry kjeff but you’re beaten.

    That is irrelevant however…

    Because you can’t find a good explanation on the cover title without referring to a passage, 271 pages into the book.

    As opposed to you, who couldn’t get past the front cover.

    RC

  49. Sweet Water Says:

    General Tiger,

    You mean in the context of 韓流? Of course, most people know it’s used as “trend” in this case.

    Not in the context of 韓流, but never mind. I was just curious if you and the majority of young Koreans knew the (general) meaning of the character 流 itself.

  50. Ken Says:

    Garlicbreath, cc: Egg,

    “Besides SamDung and LG, how many companies has anybody heard of? SamDung and LG will vanish in 10 years.”

    I prefer this sort of economics and future oriented topic to the ones about bygone days told as if he/she saw them.
    LG is not an electronic company any longer but just a trading company now as below.
    LG is purchasing LCD panel of key component for LCD-TV from Sharp of Japan and has decided to outsource even the assembly to Taiwan.
    Moreover, they are going to sell it on the name of Zenith, an American old brand, in the US.
    That is, they buy parts from Japan to drop-ship to Taiwan and entrust Taiwanese assembler to put other brand plate on to send to respective market.
    They will sell Plasma-TV too in same way.

    http://www.chosunonline.com/article/20071008000030

    Now, key component maker gains the largest profit in the production process of electronics.
    Thus the relation between Japanese companies and Korean ones is not competition but called the master and bird of ‘fishing with cormorants’.
    It means Korean companies go round world to collect bills and deliver them to Japanese companies with procuring high-value-added products.
    Therefore, the more Korean companies sell, the more Japanese companies earn.
    Likewise, they cannot produce semiconductor, only remaining high-value-added goods in Korea, without manufacturing equipments of Japan. Viva Korea!
    Samsung group’ profit is also swooping conversely to world economy steadiness so that they decided to reduce employment of college graduates.
    It is since last economy crisis of 1997 that Daewoo, one of 4 major conglomerates, bankrupted as follows.

    http://www.chosunonline.com/article/20070929000003

    I think Samsung vanishes after LG and Hyundai.

  51. egg Says:

    Ken
    Thanks for refering to me.
    I haven`t majored in economy so I am not sure about this topix. The below will only be my shallow impression.
    .
    I personally think Samsung, LG and Hyundai are great companies simply from the fact that they are selling all over the world.
    There were reasons such as forex-rate, relatively low labor costs and head-hunting of core engineers of Japanese rival companies, but I have an impression that these were not the only reasons of their growth.
    I believe, their speed in dicision making, deep consideration of product designes(I am mainly talking about LG about this point) and their marketing strategy(About the point that they tried to disguise as a Japanese company is a shame, but I guess it worked) lead them to take the chance.
    But at the same time, Japanese companies are learning their advantages, focusing on products which they are good at(such as key components as you say).
    So, I don`t think Samsung, LG and Hyundai will vanish in a decade(I guess they will find their way), and I might not use your expression

    Now, key component maker gains the largest profit in the production process of electronics.
    Thus the relation between Japanese companies and Korean ones is not competition but called the master and bird of ‘fishing with cormorants’.
    It means Korean companies go round world to collect bills and deliver them to Japanese companies with procuring high-value-added products.
    Therefore, the more Korean companies sell, the more Japanese companies earn.
    Likewise, they cannot produce semiconductor, only remaining high-value-added goods in Korea, without manufacturing equipments of Japan.

    but, about the contents of your claim, I will agree. Or I might say I have a same impression.
    And that is one of the the reasons that I can`t share Brian`s view bellow.

    On the other hand, their insecurity extended to the fact that Korea was competing and in many instances, surpassing Japan on the World’s technological products stage. For example, Samsung outperforming all Japan’s elite electronic makers or Korea’s shipbuilding industry.

    Japanese companies might had been pressured in some specific period in the past, but I believe there are few Japanese people who consider S.Korean economy as a threat against Japan. Talking about China, I guess there are some, but that is another story.

  52. kjeff Says:

    Ken,

    LG is not an electronic company any longer but just a trading company now as below.

    I guess Dell does not make computer…lol

    LG is purchasing LCD panel of key component for LCD-TV from Sharp of Japan and has decided to outsource even the assembly to Taiwan.

    What’s wrong with these? Perhaps you haven’t heard this new ‘happening,’ it’s called globalisation.

    Moreover, they are going to sell it on the name of Zenith, an American old brand, in the US.
    That is, they buy parts from Japan to drop-ship to Taiwan and entrust Taiwanese assembler to put other brand plate on to send to respective market.

    LG bought Zenith, saved it from bankruptcy, and is trying to revive the brand to it once was…again, what’s wrong with this?

    Now, key component maker gains the largest profit in the production process of electronics.
    Thus the relation between Japanese companies and Korean ones is not competition but called the master and bird of ‘fishing with cormorants’.
    It means Korean companies go round world to collect bills and deliver them to Japanese companies with procuring high-value-added products.

    I wonder what flash memory my ipod nano is using?

    Likewise, they cannot produce semiconductor, only remaining high-value-added goods in Korea, without manufacturing equipments of Japan. Viva Korea!

    Can’t live without you! Happy! lol…
    .
    P.S. Someone needs a crash course in comparative advantage.

  53. General Tiger Says:

    Sweet Water:

    I was just curious if you and the majority of young Koreans knew the (general) meaning of the character 流 itself.

    You seem to be underestimating Koreans. Even young people know the VERY basics of 漢子. The “young Koreans don’t know much” is based on how they don’t know all of the basic 2500+@ characters that’s used in everyday life.
    .
    Many people tend to overstate things.

  54. egg Says:

    General Tiger
    Sorry for interupting but is Chinese characters taught in S.Korean schools? If it is how many characters should a student learn until he/she graduates? And from when(I mean the age)? Are there exams to check whether the applicants know enough Chinese characters for perhaps an entrance of a high school?
    No ill intentions, I just became curious to know about the situation.

  55. General Tiger Says:

    egg:

    Sorry for interupting but is Chinese characters taught in S.Korean schools?

    Only in middle school, and you can choose Japanese/Chinese instead, depending on the school.

    If it is how many characters should a student learn until he/she graduates? And from when(I mean the age)?

    About 1000 or so, during middle school.

    Are there exams to check whether the applicants know enough Chinese characters for perhaps an entrance of a high school?

    Tests when going to high school? No. However, there is a serious of appchievement tests you can take which shows how much 漢子 you know (like JLPT).

  56. Sweet Water Says:

    General Tiger,
    .
    Don’t be so sensitive. I was initially wondering why Hanryu was translated as the Korean wave rather than the Korean stream, Korean current, Korean style, Korean trend, Korean fashion, Korean vogue, etc., and they might not really care about the meaning of a Chinese character. That’s not my business, though.

  57. General Tiger Says:

    Sweet Water

    Don’t be so sensitive.

    I’m just talking about the overall “Korea is going backwards because they stopped teaching 漢子!” argument that goes around here.
    .
    As for the Korean wave…. hey, it sounds more “fasionable” than Korean stream, Korean current, Korean style, Korean trend, Korean fashion, Korean vogue, etc.

  58. Errol Says:

    # Ken Says:
    October 9th, 2007 at 8:12 am

    Now, key component maker gains the largest profit in the production process of electronics.

    Kenjiro-san, all old news in Japan. If Mr kjeff is willing to fork out USD 6.95 he can get an electronic download of Core Competence at NEC and GTE.

    Harvard Business Review article “The Core Competence of the Corporation,” authors C. K. Prahalad and Gary Hamel put forth the notion of core competence with a comparison of NEC’s focus on core competence and GTE’s focus on businesses rather than competencies. The article went on to become the best-selling HBR reprint in history and ushered in a wave of consulting and academic work that said that core competence was the key to company performance. The authors predicted a bright future for NEC and other “competence-based” companies and potential obsolescence for GTE and other “business-based” companies. The present case juxtaposes quotes from the article with a discussion of the evolution of NEC and GTE through 1999. It includes performance data on the two companies that allows for a critical assessment (and counterintuitive evaluation) of the core competence idea for the 10 years preceding the publication of the article and the 10 years following the publication.

    Mr kjeff will have to read and analyse the article himself. With the benefit of Korea’s cutting edge education system that shouldn’t be a problem. Especially after presidential candidate Lee Myoung-bak makes Korea a (sic) Hub of North East Asia’s Education. Co-prosperity indeed!

  59. kjeff Says:

    Errol,

    Kenjiro-san, all old news in Japan. If Mr kjeff is willing to fork out USD 6.95 he can get an electronic download of Core Competence at NEC and GTE.

    And your point? Is there any particular reasons why I should “read and analyse” the article(I’ve read Prahalad and Hamel’s article a long time ago, but not the NEC and GTE’s case study; I’m old)?

  60. Sweet Water Says:

    Even young people know the VERY basics of 漢子.

    Actually. . . the word Kanji (Hanja) is spelled as 漢字.

  61. The Overthinker Says:

    Well, sure, but 漢子 are the kanji for children, right? Then you move on to 漢大人. Really advanced characters like 憂鬱 are 漢翁….

  62. Matt Says:

    Even young people know the VERY basics of 漢子

    Looks like Sweet Water got you there. 子 has the same pronunciation as 字, but they are different characters. If you were arguing that Koreans are minimally competent in writing Chinese characters, you have just shot yourself in the foot.

  63. General Tiger Says:

    Sweet Water:

    Actually. . . the word Kanji (Hanja) is spelled as 漢字.

    *Facepalm*
    Damn, I pressed the wrong button…. this is worse than my usual typo >_>
    Thanks for pointing that out.

  64. Errol Says:

    # kjeff Says:
    October 9th, 2007 at 9:14 pm

    “Is there any particular reasons why I should “read and analyse” the article (I’ve read Prahalad and Hamel’s article a long time ago, but not the NEC and GTE’s case study; I’m old)?”

    That is the 2002 update where Hamel and Prahalad make “a critical assessment (and counterintuitive evaluation) of the core competence idea for the 10 years preceding the publication of the article and the 10 years following the publication.”

    Analyse, analyse, analyse. Reading the Analects may make you a good Confucian but not help you get out of the well. Analysing your predicament might. Or as Socrates put it, “the unexamined life is not worth living.”

  65. GarlicBreath Says:

    but not help you get out of the well.

    KAK! Good one Errol, but sadly that comment is wasited on deaf ears.
    .
    Speaking of Japan-bashers, it seems to me that Rumi Sakamoto is just another leftist academic. She reminds me of bruce cummings.
    .
    Corean prostitues to feminists like her become “sex slaves” while Japanese comfort women dissaper entirely.
    .
    In this paper (PDF) she discussed the events of a kangroo court, held in order to convict the pre-judged.

  66. kjeff Says:

    Errol,

    Analyse, analyse, analyse. Reading the Analects may make you a good Confucian but not help you get out of the well. Analysing your predicament might. Or as Socrates put it, “the unexamined life is not worth living

    You could’ve asked me to read the bible, and said the same thing.

    That is the 2002 update where Hamel and Prahalad make “a critical assessment (and counterintuitive evaluation) of the core competence idea for the 10 years preceding the publication of the article and the 10 years following the publication.”

    In case I weren’t being clear(and perhaps YOU should read and ANALYSE my comment), how is the article relevant to our discussion?

  67. Ken Says:

    Kjeff,

    How dare you can face to me without answering your piled up homework?
    You did (could) not read (understand) my detailed explanation before so I will let you remember it with following article.
    Homework 1: Is below-mentioned system legal on global standard (‘globalization’ in your wording)?

    http://www.chosunonline.com/article/20061107000059

    “I guess Dell does not make computer. What’s wrong with these?”

    You cannot see the difference between Dell’ way and LG’ way, can you? If no, here is new homework.
    Q: Which is the reason why LG does not use own brand, what LG is not Japanese brand is getting noticed or LG brand has any negative images?

    “Can’t live without you! Happy!”

    Yes and No. Korea cannot live without Japan but Japan is switching the bird of ‘fishing with cormorants’ to China.
    Because even Chinese people have begun thinking that Korean products are inferior to Chinese ones.
    Here is homework 2 which you could not catch the subject in a paragraph so I pick it up for you.
    Is there any thing only Korea can supply, which is related to Errol’s advice?

    Errol,

    You are a rare person who posted economic comment.
    I am always wondering why those who can discuss economic topic are so few in any English blogs.
    Well, Koreans are good at declaring ‘Hub’ but easily withdraw it as follows if you read Japanese.

    http://japanese.joins.com/article/article.php?aid=82636&servcode=300&sectcode=300&p_no=&comment_gr=article_82636&pn=18

    In addition to abandoning their Pusan Logistics Hub, it is reported they give North Korea more than $2B to develop their seaport as follows.

    http://www.chosunonline.com/article/20071006000019

    Though it is less funny than a sovereign reviews the enemy troops with presenting $100B.

  68. kjeff Says:

    …what LG is not Japanese brand is getting noticed or LG brand has any negative images?

    First thing first, I couldn’t understand what you’re trying to ask me here so I can’t answer it/them?

    Which is the reason why LG does not use own brand…

    I’m guessing that you wanted me to choose, but since I couldn’t understand the rest of the sentence, why don’t I paraphrase the question into a ‘what’ question instead of ‘which.’ I don’t think my answer would be any different.
    1. Since the question originated from LG’s decision to use Zenith brand to market its television in the U.S., I’ll limit my answers to that scope. Cultivating a brand is not easy, and often, it’ll take years, if not decades, to come to some sort of fruition. I don’t think you’re old enough to remember(I’m not), but there were time that Japanese brands were considered inferior to American brands, including Zenith. In the 60s and 70s, Zenith was the premier brand of TV to have. Obviously, a lot of things happened in the 80s… Borrowing Zenith brand makes sense since it’s an established brand(in great decline). It saves a lot of time and money, not to mention distribution access. AND, most of all, it’s AMERICAN, and that’s still carry a lot of value. Similar situation can be said about Lenovo, formerly known as IBM Thinkpad, and to Chinese consumers, formerly known as Legend; Lenovo has a much better quasi-western/Italian ring to it.
    2. I think if you look the lower end of the tv market these days, you’ll probably see dozens of no-name brands(Chinese/Taiwanese/Korean made), and if I’m not wrong, this is the segment that it wants to capture with the Zenith brand; I don’t think it’s trying to compete with Samsung and Sony in the higher end market. If you have a limited budget, and your choice is between Zenith and No-Name, which one would you choose?
    3. Outside Korea, LG is already an established brand(ranked 97 in brand value) in household appliances, and to certain extent, cell-phone, and I don’t think it wants to dilute its own brand by selling lower end TVs using its own LG brand.

    Is there any thing only Korea can supply, which is related to Errol’s advice?

    No. Is there anything that only Japan can supply? First of, this is a stupid question. Except natural resources, given money/education/time, anything can be reproduced anywhere in the world. Having said that, I never want to equate Japan and S.Korea; it’s not fair, obviously, Japan’s contributions to the modern world are significantly larger given its population/economic size and a head start. But to bash Korean brands…well…I wonder what like-minded Americans said about Sony in the 70s, and I wonder what television they have in their living room now.

  69. Ken Says:

    Kjeff,

    “Since the question originated from LG’s decision to use Zenith brand to market its television in the U.S.”

    No. You are typically Korean, aren’t you?
    The subject is where is value addition by LG as electronics maker in before-mentioned supply chain.
    I said that is of a trading company.
    For your reference, I had Zenith’s TV, which was cheap and the definition was awful.
    I had asked my colleagues about it then they turned down the thumbs.
    Japanese brand was established already at that time.

    “I don’t think it wants to dilute its own brand by selling lower end TVs using its own LG brand.”

    Do you think LCD-TV is lower end TV?
    Don’t you know LCD-TV as tribute from Roh Moo-Hyon to Kim Jong-il was suspended for sunction of luxuries export?

    “But to bash Korean brands…well…I wonder what like-minded Americans said about Sony in the 70s, and I wonder what television they have in their living room now.”

    You are indeed typically Korean.
    I warned economy crisis is coming again and suggested a few problems to reform at former topic.
    Then, you denied it without any logic and boasted a few companies as Koreans always do.
    So, I asked that question. There is no need to cahnge the subject to Japan.

  70. GarlicBreath Says:

    Americans will soon stop buying cheap corean TV.s and get cheaper chinese ones. Goodbye samDung. Good news!! Go CHINA take back what is yours!!

    Best Buy, an electronics retailer in Sunnyvale in northern Los Angeles, is selling 32-inch LCD TVs from Samsung and Sony for $999, from LG Electronics for $899 and from Westinghouse for $599.

    “Consumers are being divided into two distinct groups,” said Bob Taylor, a salesclerk. “One group prefers very low-priced products and the other wants luxury brands.”

    But samDung and LG are not luxury brands, nothing from Corea is a luxury brand. Not even the corean flagship of luxury hyundie.

    My God. To get to a Sonata, you have to bypass a new Accord and Altima, as well as the freshened Camry, Ford Fusion, etc. Everybody does a pretty good job in this category (except Chrysler: see Sebring).

    KAK!

  71. Ken Says:

    Egg,

    “I haven`t majored in economy so I am not sure about this topix.”

    I feel your line is same with me.

    “I believe, their speed in dicision making, deep consideration of product designes and their marketing strategy lead them to take the chance.”

    You are so sweet that you incline to be deceived by superficial and sensational opinion favor with readers as I advised before.
    You had better go behind writers’ comments even by Pulitzer prize winner, i.e. to know actual business from the inside.
    About 20 years ago, there was a trade conflict (even called trade war) between the US and Japan and semiconductor was the focal point.
    Semiconductor import from the US was merely 40% of the export to the US at the peak, which means 40:100.
    The US must have liked to threaten Japan to balance them with only from the US, which means 50:50, but officially required to balance between the import and export from and to outside Japan.
    DRAM had the largest sales in semiconductors and relatively easy to replace but US made quantity was not enough to balance.
    So, Japanese companies transferred the technology to Korean companies to let them produce and import, such as Toshiba to Samsung, Hitachi to LG, etc.
    At the beginning, Korean companies were following respective instructors’ request about price and quantity.
    However, they began selling under the price ruled between the US and Japan when recession came and 9 of 10 Japanese DRAM makers withdrew from this market.
    DRAM brought more than half profit of Toshiba, which was invested to enable Toshiba to become top NB PC vendor and such would be on Korean companies.
    Besides, it is quite natural that Korean companies decide quickly because certain kinsmen are running them.
    They are so-called private companies as I cited for Kjeff with homework which could not be answered but the point is whether all kinsmen are capable or not.
    It would not be better expect much because their newspaper does not know figures of other country’s winner and count the foreigner born in Korea as Korea origin winner about Nobel prize as follows though the reflection that Korea has been only imitating advanced nations and not invested on fundamental science is hitting the mark.

    http://www.chosunonline.com/article/20071011000068

  72. egg Says:

    Ken
    Thank you, I didn`t know these things which you have pointed out.

    About 20 years ago, there was a trade conflict (even called trade war) between the US and Japan and semiconductor was the focal point.
    Semiconductor import from the US was merely 40% of the export to the US at the peak, which means 40:100.
    The US must have liked to threaten Japan to balance them with only from the US, which means 50:50, but officially required to balance between the import and export from and to outside Japan.
    DRAM had the largest sales in semiconductors and relatively easy to replace but US made quantity was not enough to balance.

    I wonder (I don`t intend to object to you, it is a genuine question), weren`t there alternatives for Japanese companies to build factories in the US, instead of transfering their tecnolgies to the S.Korean companies. Can I hear your opinion again?
    About the link you provided, I had read it too. I thought the way they think to be queer.

  73. kjeff Says:

    Ken and Errol,
    Korean economy is doomed…
    Korean companies are doomed…
    Korea copied everything from Japan…(Or, we “let” you have them.)
    Trust no one, except me, because I know “the actual business from the inside.”
    If you disagree, you’re just a “typical Korean.”
    .
    Did I miss anything?
    .

    Do you think LCD-TV is lower end TV?

    This really screams, “Why do I bother?” Check out GarlicBreath’s last comment for an answer. I don’t if it’s the language(it’s rather difficult to read your comments), or…I don’t know…

  74. Matt Says:

    Enough talk about the Korean economy. It is not relevant to the topic at hand.

  75. Brian Says:

    “Korean economy is doomed…
    Korean companies are doomed…
    Korea copied everything from Japan…(Or, we “let” you have them.)
    Trust no one, except me, because I know “the actual business from the inside.”
    If you disagree, you’re just a “typical Korean.”

    kjeff! that’s hilarious. These posters on this site is are huge hypocrites! Accusing Koreans (as a race, which is already absurd in itself) of doing the exact things they are doing on a daily bases. Someone bring these guys back to reality.

  76. egg Says:

    Brian

    We all know the reason this Manga was written and became popular is because of the jealously and insecurity of Japanese nationalists of Korean successes.

    Show me the basis of your theory.
    If you consider the claim you made about the economy and the entertainments to be the basis of your theory, I think your recognition is wrong. The reason why I think so is written here already.
    I am sorry to say but from my eyes, your behavior does not change. You don`t listen or answer too, not to say about generalization.

  77. Ken Says:

    Egg,

    “weren`t there alternatives for Japanese companies to build factories in the US, instead of transfering their tecnolgies to the S.Korean companies.”

    That is good stuff for you to compare critic’s opinion, real motive of business circles inside and technical reason.

    “About the link you provided, I had read it too. I thought the way they think to be queer.”

    What is queerer is next article that the manufacturing equipment in space factory can work eternally without adding energy. ??

    http://www.chosunonline.com/article/20061218000055

    Nobel prize is a long way off in not only natural science but also economics though the prophecy that China declines will hit the mark.
    Anyway, let’s quit this conversation as it seems 2 guys from axis of totalitarianism have gone 화병 and Matt dislikes.

  78. bishamon Says:

    Rimi Sakamoto is the VAWW-Net agent lives in NZ.

    http://www.nzasia.org.nz/downloads/NZJAS-June01/Comfortwomen.pdf

  79. YoshoMasaki Says:

    Really, the commentary here leaves a lot to be desired. Isn’t it obvious enough that if an article having an anti-Japanese slant was written by a shill anti-Japanese author that its conclusions are biased? We who are well-informed can see such a person’s slanted writings for what they are, an interesting piece of the puzzle of a larger clash of societies in East Asia.

    But the real harm from an amateur, extremely spun “analysis” of literature like this is that other uninformed amateurs take it as truth and run with it. Kenkanryuu (which has no other interoretation than “The Hate Korea Wave” in my analysis) was written as a backlash against a number of outrageous examples of Korean anti-Japanese sentiment, ongoing and intensifying since the end of WWII. These, in turn, had certain inflated wartime incidents of misbehavior on the part of some Japanese as their basis.

    In any case, this background is reduced to nothing and Kenkanryuu is written off as a propaganda tool of “nationalistic” Japanese “youth”. Huh?! Japanese male youth of today mostly dress like fags and are skinnier than Paris runway models, and voted the least likely to defend their nation in case of attack (next to the Swiss). Nationalistic, they ain’t. But the author marches on, leading a Quixotic charge against the phantom of “rising Japanese nationalism”.

    It takes a hell of an imagination to connect chuhai-sipping freeters with the infamous black trucks with an underground movement of nationalist 2-channelers with the success of Kenkanryuu with college students with a heretofore unseen “toxic” “nationalist” “racist” “revisionist” “extreme” anti-conformist youth culture. Rumi pulls it off excitedly and breathless at her own self-fulfilling discovery. For a “peer reviewed” e-journal one might expect a bit more substance, no?

  80. kjeff Says:

    YoshoMasaki,

    Kenkanryuu is written off as a propaganda tool of “nationalistic” Japanese “youth”. Huh?! Japanese male youth of today mostly dress like fags and are skinnier than Paris runway models, and voted the least likely to defend their nation in case of attack (next to the Swiss). Nationalistic, they ain’t. But the author marches on, leading a Quixotic charge against the phantom of “rising Japanese nationalism”.

    Here’s part of the article, just above its conclusion:

    Does the existence of this comic mean that Japanese youth are becoming more ‘nationalistic’? More extreme? Our discussion above has cast doubt on this.[15] But there are disturbing new statistics about the increasing political conservatism of Japanese youth, described by Sasada[16] (2006:119), who points to the commecial success of manga on such topics as Kenkanryu, suggesting that audiences who read them are in fact digesting and accommodating narrow and sometimes bigoted views on nationalism in a format they can comprehend and relate to, and that they provide ‘a bridge between young readers and conservative scholars’. While it is hard to estimate the influence of such publications, there is no doubt that many people have now consumed the comic. In terms of consumption though, it can be stated that as many hundreds of thousands of people have read the comic, vastly more people will have read these views than have read (or will read) the ‘new history textbook’ over which a major international incident arose between China and Japan, because it was thought to influence many Japanese. Yet, the question of influence is moot if we return to the question raised above: do all who read these publications believe all of the opinions expressed within? It’s unlikely. Indeed, many who read these works, which in effect reproduce a series of longstanding arguments about Japan’s historical memory held by a small but vocal minority of right wing historians, do so for other reasons as we’ve outlined above. Even those who are sympathetic to the views expressed within these publications may be reacting to the phenomenon of the ‘Korean Wave’ itself rather than forming anything intrinsically neo-nationalist: a reaction to the pop cultural ‘invasion’ by their neighbors. And while it is tempting to cite this example as another instance of increasing nationalism among Japanese youth, such a statement has little or no empirical foundation.

    For an “analysis,” one might expect a bit more substance…no…one might expect you to actually read the damn thing, no?

  81. YoshoMasaki Says:

    I’m not here to play semantic games with you. Yes, I read the entire article. I understand that after two dozen pages promising to bring out the demon of Japanese nationalism, the authors pull a cute bunny rabbit out of their hat in the last paragraph. The fact remains that this article is biased, plagued with error, and contains blistering anti-Japanese sound bytes which will only fuel sentiment by ignorant Western media and countless armchair diplomats.

    That’s bad enough in my book.

  82. kjeff Says:

    I’m not here to play semantic games with you.

    Which aspect of my comment was ‘semantic?’

    I understand that after two dozen pages promising to bring out the demon of Japanese nationalism, the authors pull a cute bunny rabbit out of their hat in the last paragraph.

    I guess we’re reading two different articles.

    In the context of increasing fears that Japanese youth are becoming more ‘nationalistic’ we argue that it is important to examine the medium as much as the message in assessing whether we are witnessing the emergence of a significant and dangerous social movement, or something rather different.

    That was part of the introduction. To me, the construction of that sentence suggests that it’s going to be “something rather different.”
    The fact remains that this article is biased, plagued with error, and contains blistering anti-Japanese sound bytes which will only fuel sentiment by ignorant Western media and countless armchair diplomats.

    That’s bad enough in my book.

    Care to point out where the bias and errors…I truly want to know.(Not the title please, unless you can explain the use of different fonts and colors) And, I can’t really find the “blistering anti-Japanese sound bytes that you mentioned, or was that just “semantic?”

  83. Matt Says:

    Care to point out where the bias and errors…I truly want to know.(Not the title please, unless you can explain the use of different fonts and colors)

    You tell me what the difference in font colors means, and also give me the basis for your idea. And please, by all means, please edify me by telling me the meaning of the title.

  84. kjeff Says:

    Matt,
    Can we at least agree on something first…if the title were “Ken KanRyu”(that’s Ken(space)KanRyu), it should be translated as “Hating the Korean wave”?

  85. General Tiger Says:

    kjeff:

    Can we at least agree on something first…if the title were “Ken KanRyu”(that’s Ken(space)KanRyu), it should be translated as “Hating the Korean wave”?

    The title has a double meaning: “Hating the Korean wave”and “Hate-Korea Wave”. Can we leave it at that and go on to more constructive issues?

  86. Matt Says:

    Matt,
    Can we at least agree on something first…if the title were “Ken KanRyu”(that’s Ken(space)KanRyu), it should be translated as “Hating the Korean wave”?

    No, because the Japanese language does not have spaces.

  87. kjeff Says:

    Matt,

    No, because the Japanese language does not have spaces.

    LOL…is there anyway that you can mean -and, nothing else- “Hating the Korean Wave” using these three words, Ken, Kan, Ryu, and these only?

  88. GarlicBreath Says:

    LOL…is there anyway that you can mean -and, nothing else- “Hating the Korean Wave” using these three words, Ken, Kan, Ryu, and these only?

    Sounds like somebody is getting desperate to make a claim.

    This is worth repeating.

    people began to find out about the negative aspects of Korea, in particular the anti-Japanese sentiment that is prevalent in South Korea. Kenkanryu is a backlash – but it is a backlash against anti-Japanese sentiment in South Korea, not against the Korean wave.

    My opinion is that because so many Coreans hate and have deep envy of Japan, they are eager to paint Japan as having the same hatred.

  89. Sweet Water Says:

    GarlicBreath, my interpretation is slightly different from yours:

    My opinion is that because so many Coreans hate and have deep envy of Japan, they are eager to paint Japan as having the same hatred.

    Many Korean people want to believe they are superior and should be respected by others. So, they are very sensitive to any criticisms on their culture, history, and economy, as we’ve seen in this blog and in others. They cannot accept the notion that they are hated or despised by others, especially, by the Japanese and the westerners, because it pushes the button of their inferior complex. However, they are eager to accept the notion that Korean people are so successful and “envied” all around the world. That makes them happy, and they couldn’t be happier when someone tells them that the Japanese are “jealous” about the success of the Korean.
    .
    Thus, from the view point of the Korean (and kjeff), the title “Kenkanryu” must be translated as “Hating the Korean Wave” instead of “The Hate Korea Wave,” despite that the book has little to do with so-called the Korean wave (and that there are no other Japanese words with 嫌 [ken] followed by two Chinese characters). The article by Rumi Sakamoto and her coauthor simply provides what the Korean wants to hear.

  90. GarlicBreath Says:

    Many Korean people want to believe they are superior and should be respected by others. So, they are very sensitive to any criticisms on their culture, history, and economy, as we’ve seen in this blog and in others. They cannot accept the notion that they are hated or despised by others, especially, by the Japanese and the westerners, because it pushes the button of their inferior complex. However, they are eager to accept the notion that Korean people are so successful and “envied” all around the world. That makes them happy, and they couldn’t be happier when someone tells them that the Japanese are “jealous” about the success of the Korean.

    I see your point SweetWater (you have given me a lot to think about). One small correction, I don’t think Japanese despise coreans. Japanese are a very kind and wearm hearted people and it is rare to find any who despise coreans.

  91. Brian Says:

    LOL. Garlic-face is the biggest hyprocrite the world. And sweet-water is pulling crap out of his ass. Nice generalizations there buddy.

    I think people who bully and are hate-filled towards any group of people are the ones with the insecurity complex. Didn’t you ever learn that bullies are the most insecure ones around? *cough cough* Garlic-face *cough*

  92. Brian Says:

    Moreover, I’ve seen Korean pride in action, but it is only insecure individuals like you, sweetwater, who keep accusing Koreans of so-called “superiority.” I think you’ve got things reversed here. Koreans are proud, which I don’t really see anything wrong with. You, however, are the one feeling jealous and inferior hence the constant “superiority finger pointing.”

  93. ponta. Says:

    I also see Korean pride in action.
    http://www.rjkoehler.com/2007/10/19/well-its-not-like-north-korea-is-japan-or-anything/

    President Roh said today that he has no intention to ask North Korea for an apology for invading the South in 1950,

    Roh must be very proud.
    http://www.rjkoehler.com/2007/10/19/dongducheon-filipina-sues-gi-for-child-support/

    When she got to the club, she learned that it was a place of prostitution for GIs. She would even have to service Koreans looking for “2-cha” (i.e., sex).

    Obviously she was deceived by an Korean agent, and
    deceiving women into prosititution is illegal in Korea, isn’t it?

    Korean government must be very proud.

  94. Sweet Water Says:

    Brian,
    .
    I cannot accuse Koreans of their self-claimed superiority, because I cannot see it. As a Chinese immigrant in Canada, Brian, do you really observe that the Korean is superior to the others? Are you jealous of the success (whatever it is) of Korea? Suppose no one around you envies (or even acknowledges) the Korean superiority, why do you believe I feel jealous and inferior to them? You seemed to derive your conclusion out of thin air.
    .
    I don’t see anything wrong with the pride/self-esteem of the Korean, so long as the pride is truthful. The problem is that Korean pride is most of the time nothing more than Korean vanity. Koreans do not seem to be confident of what they are boasting about. So, they are always worrying how other people are thinking about them or their staff. They are susceptible to flattery and sensitive to criticism.
    .
    Due to the lack of confidence, they go into ecstasies when they are flattered, and they explode into angry words when criticized. The following is another example of “Korean pride in action.”

    What the Hell Is Wrong with Korea?

  95. egg Says:

    Brian
    I am waiting for your reply. Or are you going to take down your claim?

    We all know the reason this Manga was written and became popular is because of the jealously and insecurity of Japanese nationalists of Korean successes.

  96. Nips Says:

    What does it matter? Japanese are Korean.

  97. Nips Says:

    Japanese Roots
    Just who are the Japanese? Where did they come from and when? The answers are difficult to come by, though not impossible—the real problem is that the Japanese themselves may not want to know.
    by Jared Diamond
    Unearthing the origins of the Japanese is a much harder task than you might guess. Among world powers today, the Japanese are the most distinctive in their culture and environment. The origins of their language are one of the most disputed questions of linguistics. These questions are central to the self-image of the Japanese and to how they are viewed by other peoples. Japan’s rising dominance and touchy relations with its neighbors make it more important than ever to strip away myths and find answers.

    The search for answers is difficult because the evidence is so conflicting. On the one hand, the Japanese people are biologically undistinctive, being very similar in appearance and genes to other East Asians, especially to Koreans. As the Japanese like to stress, they are culturally and biologically rather homogeneous, with the exception of a distinctive people called the Ainu on Japan’s northernmost island of Hokkaido. Taken together, these facts seem to suggest that the Japanese reached Japan only recently from the Asian mainland, too recently to have evolved differences from their mainland cousins, and displaced the Ainu, who represent the original inhabitants. But if that were true, you might expect the Japanese language to show close affinities to some mainland language, just as English is obviously closely related to other Germanic languages (because Anglo-Saxons from the continent conquered England as recently as the sixth century a.d.). How can we resolve this contradiction between Japan’s presumably ancient language and the evidence for recent origins?

    Archeologists have proposed four conflicting theories. Most popular in Japan is the view that the Japanese gradually evolved from ancient Ice Age people who occupied Japan long before 20,000 b.c. Also widespread in Japan is a theory that the Japanese descended from horse-riding Asian nomads who passed through Korea to conquer Japan in the fourth century, but who were themselves—emphatically—not Koreans. A theory favored by many Western archeologists and Koreans, and unpopular in some circles in Japan, is that the Japanese are descendants of immigrants from Korea who arrived with rice-paddy agriculture around 400 b.c. Finally, the fourth theory holds that the peoples named in the other three theories could have mixed to form the modern Japanese.

    When similar questions of origins arise about other peoples, they can be discussed dispassionately. That is not so for the Japanese. Until 1946, Japanese schools taught a myth of history based on the earliest recorded Japanese chronicles, which were written in the eighth century. They describe how the sun goddess Amaterasu, born from the left eye of the creator god Izanagi, sent her grandson Ninigi to Earth on the Japanese island of Kyushu to wed an earthly deity. Ninigi’s great-grandson Jimmu, aided by a dazzling sacred bird that rendered his enemies helpless, became the first emperor of Japan in 660 b.c. To fill the gap between 660 b.c. and the earliest historically documented Japanese monarchs, the chronicles invented 13 other equally fictitious emperors. Before the end of World War II, when Emperor Hirohito finally announced that he was not of divine descent, Japanese archeologists and historians had to make their interpretations conform to this chronicle account. Unlike American archeologists, who acknowledge that ancient sites in the United States were left by peoples (Native Americans) unrelated to most modern Americans, Japanese archeologists believe all archeological deposits in Japan, no matter how old, were left by ancestors of the modern Japanese. Hence archeology in Japan is supported by astronomical budgets, employs up to 50,000 field-workers each year, and draws public attention to a degree inconceivable anywhere else in the world.

    Why do they care so much? Unlike most other non-European countries, Japan preserved its independence and culture while emerging from isolation to create an industrialized society in the late nineteenth century. It was a remarkable achievement. Now the Japanese people are understandably concerned about maintaining their traditions in the face of massive Western cultural influences. They want to believe that their distinctive language and culture required uniquely complex developmental processes. To acknowledge a relationship of the Japanese language to any other language seems to constitute a surrender of cultural identity.

    What makes it especially difficult to discuss Japanese archeology dispassionately is that Japanese interpretations of the past affect present behavior. Who among East Asian peoples brought culture to whom? Who has historical claims to whose land? These are not just academic questions. For instance, there is much archeological evidence that people and material objects passed between Japan and Korea in the period a.d. 300 to 700. Japanese interpret this to mean that Japan conquered Korea and brought Korean slaves and artisans to Japan; Koreans believe instead that Korea conquered Japan and that the founders of the Japanese imperial family were Korean.

    Thus, when Japan sent troops to Korea and annexed it in 1910, Japanese military leaders celebrated the annexation as the restoration of the legitimate arrangement of antiquity. For the next 35 years, Japanese occupation forces tried to eradicate Korean culture and to replace the Korean language with Japanese in schools. The effort was a consequence of a centuries-old attitude of disdain. Nose tombs in Japan still contain 20,000 noses severed from Koreans and brought home as trophies of a sixteenth-century Japanese invasion. Not surprisingly, many Koreans loathe the Japanese, and their loathing is returned with contempt.

    What really was the legitimate arrangement of antiquity? Today, Japan and Korea are both economic powerhouses, facing each other across the Korea Strait and viewing each other through colored lenses of false myths and past atrocities. It bodes ill for the future of East Asia if these two great peoples cannot find common ground. To do so, they will need a correct understanding of who the Japanese people really are.

    Japan’s unique culture began with its unique geogra-phy and environment. It is, for comparison, far more isolated than Britain, which lies only 22 miles from the French coast. Japan lies 110 miles from the closest point of the Asian mainland (South Korea), 190 miles from mainland Russia, and 480 miles from mainland China. Climate, too, sets Japan apart. Its rainfall, up to 120 inches a year, makes it the wettest temperate country in the world. Unlike the winter rains prevailing over much of Europe, Japan’s rains are concentrated in the summer growing season, giving it the highest plant productivity of any nation in the temperate zones. While 80 percent of Japan’s land consists of mountains unsuitable for agriculture and only 14 percent is farmland, an average square mile of that farmland is so fertile that it supports eight times as many people as does an average square mile of British farmland. Japan’s high rainfall also ensures a quickly regenerated forest after logging. Despite thousands of years of dense human occupation, Japan still offers visitors a first impression of greenness because 70 percent of its land is still covered by forest.

    Japanese forest composition varies with latitude and altitude: evergreen leafy forest in the south at low altitude, deciduous leafy forest in central Japan, and coniferous forest in the north and high up. For prehistoric humans, the deciduous leafy forest was the most productive, providing abundant edible nuts such as walnuts, chestnuts, horse chestnuts, acorns, and beechnuts. Japanese waters are also outstandingly productive. The lakes, rivers, and surrounding seas teem with salmon, trout, tuna, sardines, mackerel, herring, and cod. Today, Japan is the largest consumer of fish in the world. Japanese waters are also rich in clams, oysters, and other shellfish, crabs, shrimp, crayfish, and edible seaweeds. That high productivity was a key to Japan’s prehistory.

    From southwest to northeast, the four main Japanese islands are Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu, and Hokkaido. Until the late nineteenth century, Hokkaido and northern Honshu were inhabited mainly by the Ainu, who lived as hunter-gatherers with limited agriculture, while the people we know today as Japanese occupied the rest of the main islands.

    In appearance, of course, the Japanese are very similar to other East Asians. As for the Ainu, however, their distinctive appearance has prompted more to be written about their origins and relationships than about any other single people on Earth. Partly because Ainu men have luxuriant beards and the most profuse body hair of any people, they are often classified as Caucasoids (so-called white people) who somehow migrated east through Eurasia to Japan. In their overall genetic makeup, though, the Ainu are related to other East Asians, including the Japanese and Koreans. The distinctive appearance and hunter-gatherer lifestyle of the Ainu, and the undistinctive appearance and the intensive agricultural lifestyle of the Japanese, are frequently taken to suggest the straightforward interpretation that the Ainu are descended from Japan’s original hunter-gatherer inhabitants and the Japanese are more recent invaders from the Asian mainland.

    But this view is difficult to reconcile with the distinctiveness of the Japanese language. Everyone agrees that Japanese does not bear a close relation to any other language in the world. Most scholars consider it to be an isolated member of Asia’s Altaic language family, which consists of Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic languages. Korean is also often considered to be an isolated member of this family, and within the family Japanese and Korean may be more closely related to each other than to other Altaic languages. However, the similarities between Japanese and Korean are confined to general grammatical features and about 15 percent of their basic vocabularies, rather than the detailed shared features of grammar and vocabulary that link, say, French to Spanish; they are more different from each other than Russian is from English.

    Since languages change over time, the more similar two languages are, the more recently they must have diverged. By counting common words and features, linguists can estimate how long ago languages diverged, and such estimates suggest that Japanese and Korean parted company at least 4,000 years ago. As for the Ainu language, its origins are thoroughly in doubt; it may not have any special relationship to Japanese.

    After genes and language, a third type of evidence about Japanese origins comes from ancient portraits. The earliest preserved likenesses of Japan’s inhabitants are statues called haniwa, erected outside tombs around 1,500 years ago. Those statues unmistakably depict East Asians. They do not resemble the heavily bearded Ainu. If the Japanese did replace the Ainu in Japan south of Hokkaido, that replacement must have occurred before a.d. 500.

    Our earliest written information about Japan comes from Chinese chronicles, because China developed literacy long before Korea or Japan. In early Chinese accounts of various peoples referred to as Eastern Barbarians, Japan is described under the name Wa, whose inhabitants were said to be divided into more than a hundred quarreling states. Only a few Korean or Japanese inscriptions before a.d. 700 have been preserved, but extensive chronicles were written in 712 and 720 in Japan and later in Korea. Those reveal massive transmission of culture to Japan from Korea itself, and from China via Korea. The chronicles are also full of accounts of Koreans in Japan and of Japanese in Korea—interpreted by Japanese or Korean historians, respectively, as evidence of Japanese conquest of Korea or the reverse.

    The ancestors of the Japanese, then, seem to have reached Japan before they had writing. Their biology suggests a recent arrival, but their language suggests arrival long ago. To resolve this paradox, we must now turn to archeology.

    The seas that surround much of Japan and coastal East Asia are shallow enough to have been dry land during the ice ages, when much of the ocean water was locked up in glaciers and sea level lay at about 500 feet below its present measurement. Land bridges connected Japan’s main islands to one another, to the Russian mainland, and to South Korea. The mammals walking out to Japan included not only the ancestors of modern Japan’s bears and monkeys but also ancient humans, long before boats had been invented. Stone tools indicate human arrival as early as half a million years ago.

    Around 13,000 years ago, as glaciers melted rapidly all over the world, conditions in Japan changed spectacularly for the better, as far as humans were concerned. Temperature, rainfall, and humidity all increased, raising plant productivity to present high levels. Deciduous leafy forests full of nut trees, which had been confined to southern Japan during the ice ages, expanded northward at the expense of coniferous forest, thereby replacing a forest type that had been rather sterile for humans with a much more productive one. The rise in sea level severed the land bridges, converted Japan from a piece of the Asian continent to a big archipelago, turned what had been a plain into rich shallow seas, and created thousands of miles of productive new coastline with innumerable islands, bays, tidal flats, and estuaries, all teeming with seafood.

    That end of the Ice Age was accompanied by the first of the two most decisive changes in Japanese history: the invention of pottery. In the usual experience of archeologists, inventions flow from mainlands to islands, and small peripheral societies aren’t supposed to contribute revolutionary advances to the rest of the world. It therefore astonished archeologists to discover that the world’s oldest known pottery was made in Japan 12,700 years ago. For the first time in human experience, people had watertight containers readily available in any desired shape. With their new ability to boil or steam food, they gained access to abundant resources that had previously been difficult to use: leafy vegetables, which would burn or dry out if cooked on an open fire; shellfish, which could now be opened easily; and toxic foods like acorns, which could now have their toxins boiled out. Soft-boiled foods could be fed to small children, permitting earlier weaning and more closely spaced babies. Toothless old people, the repositories of information in a preliterate society, could now be fed and live longer. All those momentous consequences of pottery triggered a population explosion, causing Japan’s population to climb from an estimated few thousand to a quarter of a million.

    The prejudice that islanders are supposed to learn from superior continentals wasn’t the sole reason that record-breaking Japanese pottery caused such a shock. In addition, those first Japanese potters were clearly hunter-gatherers, which also violated established views. Usually only sedentary societies own pottery: what nomad wants to carry heavy, fragile pots, as well as weapons and the baby, whenever time comes to shift camp? Most sedentary societies elsewhere in the world arose only with the adoption of agriculture. But the Japanese environment is so productive that people could settle down and make pottery while still living by hunting and gathering. Pottery helped those Japanese hunter-gatherers exploit their environment’s rich food resources more than 10,000 years before intensive agriculture reached Japan.

    Much ancient Japanese pottery was decorated by rolling or pressing a cord on soft clay. Because the Japanese word for cord marking is jomon, the term Jomon is applied to the pottery itself, to the ancient Japanese people who made it, and to that whole period in Japanese prehistory beginning with the invention of pottery and ending only 10,000 years later. The earliest Jomon pottery, of 12,700 years ago, comes from Kyushu, the southernmost Japanese island. Thereafter, pottery spread north, reaching the vicinity of modern Tokyo around 9,500 years ago and the northernmost island of Hokkaido by 7,000 years ago. Pottery’s northward spread followed that of deciduous forest rich in nuts, suggesting that the climate-related food explosion was what permitted sedentary living.

    How did Jomon people make their living? We have abundant evidence from the garbage they left behind at hundreds of thousands of excavated archeological sites all over Japan. They apparently enjoyed a well-balanced diet, one that modern nutritionists would applaud.

    One major food category was nuts, especially chestnuts and walnuts, plus horse chestnuts and acorns leached or boiled free of their bitter poisons. Nuts could be harvested in autumn in prodigious quantities, then stored for the winter in underground pits up to six feet deep and six feet wide. Other plant foods included berries, fruits, seeds, leaves, shoots, bulbs, and roots. In all, archeologists sifting through Jomon garbage have identified 64 species of edible plants.

    Then as now, Japan’s inhabitants were among the world’s leading consumers of seafood. They harpooned tuna in the open ocean, killed seals on the beaches, and exploited seasonal runs of salmon in the rivers. They drove dolphins into shallow water and clubbed or speared them, just as Japanese hunters do today. They netted diverse fish, captured them in weirs, and caught them on fishhooks carved from deer antlers. They gathered shellfish, crabs, and seaweed in the intertidal zone or dove for them. (Jomon skeletons show a high incidence of abnormal bone growth in the ears, often observed in divers today.) Among land animals hunted, wild boar and deer were the most common prey. They were caught in pit traps, shot with bows and arrows, and run down with dogs.

    The most debated question about Jomon subsistence concerns the possible contribution of agriculture. Many Jomon sites contain remains of edible plants that are native to Japan as wild species but also grown as crops today, including the adzuki bean and green gram bean. The remains from Jomon times do not clearly show features distinguishing the crops from their wild ancestors, so we do not know whether these plants were gathered in the wild or grown intentionally. Sites also have debris of edible or useful plant species not native to Japan, such as hemp, which must have been introduced from the Asian mainland. Around 1000 b.c., toward the end of the Jomon period, a few grains of rice, barley, and millet, the staple cereals of East Asia, began to appear. All these tantalizing clues make it likely that Jomon people were starting to practice some slash-and-burn agriculture, but evidently in a casual way that made only a minor contribution to their diet.

    Archeologists studying Jomon hunter-gatherers have found not only hard-to-carry pottery (including pieces up to three feet tall) but also heavy stone tools, remains of substantial houses that show signs of repair, big village sites of 50 or more dwellings, and cemeteries—all further evidence that the Jomon people were sedentary rather than nomadic. Their stay-at-home lifestyle was made possible by the diversity of resource-rich habitats available within a short distance of one central site: inland forests, rivers, seashores, bays, and open oceans. Jomon people lived at some of the highest population densities ever estimated for hunter-gatherers, especially in central and northern Japan, with their nut-rich forests, salmon runs, and productive seas. The estimate of the total population of Jomon Japan at its peak is 250,000—trivial, of course, compared with today, but impressive for hunter-gatherers.

    With all this stress on what Jomon people did have, we need to be clear as well about what they didn’t have. Their lives were very different from those of contemporary societies only a few hundred miles away in mainland China and Korea. Jomon people had no intensive agriculture. Apart from dogs (and perhaps pigs), they had no domestic animals. They had no metal tools, no writing, no weaving, and little social stratification into chiefs and commoners. Regional variation in pottery styles suggests little progress toward political centralization and unification.

    Despite its distinctiveness even in East Asia at that time, Jomon Japan was not completely isolated. Pottery, obsidian, and fishhooks testify to some Jomon trade with Korea, Russia, and Okinawa—as does the arrival of Asian mainland crops. Compared with later eras, though, that limited trade with the outside world had little influence on Jomon society. Jomon Japan was a miniature conservative universe that changed surprisingly little over 10,000 years.

    To place Jomon Japan in a contemporary perspective, let us remind ourselves of what human societies were like on the Asian mainland in 400 b.c., just as the Jomon lifestyle was about to come to an end. China consisted of kingdoms with rich elites and poor commoners; the people lived in walled towns, and the country was on the verge of political unification and would soon become the world’s largest empire. Beginning around 6500 b.c., China had developed intensive agriculture based on millet in the north and rice in the south; it had domestic pigs, chickens, and water buffalo. The Chinese had had writing for at least 900 years, metal tools for at least 1,500 years, and had just invented the world’s first cast iron. Those developments were also spreading to Korea, which itself had had agriculture for several thousand years (including rice since at least 2100 b.c.) and metal since 1000 b.c.

    With all these developments going on for thousands of years just across the Korea Strait from Japan, it might seem astonishing that in 400 b.c. Japan was still occupied by people who had some trade with Korea but remained preliterate stone-tool-using hunter-gatherers. Throughout human history, centralized states with metal weapons and armies supported by dense agricultural populations have consistently swept away sparser populations of hunter-gatherers. How did Jomon Japan survive so long?

    To understand the answer to this paradox, we have to remember that until 400 b.c., the Korea Strait separated not rich farmers from poor hunter-gatherers, but poor farmers from rich hunter-gatherers. China itself and Jomon Japan were probably not in direct contact. Instead Japan’s trade contacts, such as they were, involved Korea. But rice had been domesticated in warm southern China and spread only slowly northward to much cooler Korea, because it took a long time to develop cold-resistant strains of rice. Early rice agriculture in Korea used dry-field methods rather than irrigated paddies and was not particularly productive. Hence early Korean agriculture could not compete with Jomon hunting and gathering. Jomon people themselves would have seen no advantage in adopting Korean agriculture, insofar as they were aware of its existence, and poor Korean farmers had no advantages that would let them force their way into Japan. As we shall see, the advantages finally reversed suddenly and dramatically.

    More than 10,000 years after the invention of pottery and the subsequent Jomon population explosion, a second decisive event in Japanese history triggered a second population explosion. Around 400 b.c., a new lifestyle arrived from South Korea. This second transition poses in acute form our question about who the Japanese are. Does the transition mark the replacement of Jomon people with immigrants from Korea, ancestral to the modern Japanese? Or did Japan’s original Jomon inhabitants continue to occupy Japan while learning valuable new tricks?

    The new mode of living appeared first on the north coast of Japan’s southwesternmost island, Kyushu, just across the Korea Strait from South Korea. There we find Japan’s first metal tools, of iron, and Japan’s first undisputed full-scale agriculture. That agriculture came in the form of irrigated rice fields, complete with canals, dams, banks, paddies, and rice residues revealed by archeological excavations. Archeologists term the new way of living Yayoi, after a district of Tokyo where in 1884 its characteristic pottery was first recognized. Unlike Jomon pottery, Yayoi pottery was very similar to contemporary South Korean pottery in shape. Many other elements of the new Yayoi culture were unmistakably Korean and previously foreign to Japan, including bronze objects, weaving, glass beads, and styles of tools and houses.

    While rice was the most important crop, Yayoi farmers introduced 27 new to Japan, as well as unquestionably domesticated pigs. They may have practiced double cropping, with paddies irrigated for rice production in the summer, then drained for dry-land cultivation of millet, barley, and wheat in the winter. Inevitably, this highly productive system of intensive agriculture triggered an immediate population explosion in Kyushu, where archeologists have identified far more Yayoi sites than Jomon sites, even though the Jomon period lasted 14 times longer.

    In virtually no time, Yayoi farming jumped from Kyushu to the adjacent main islands of Shikoku and Honshu, reaching the Tokyo area within 200 years, and the cold northern tip of Honshu (1,000 miles from the first Yayoi settlements on Kyushu) in another century. After briefly occupying northern Honshu, Yayoi farmers abandoned that area, presumably because rice farming could not compete with the Jomon hunter-gatherer life. For the next 2,000 years, northern Honshu remained a frontier zone, beyond which the northernmost Japanese island of Hokkaido and its Ainu hunter-gatherers were not even considered part of the Japanese state until their annexation in the nineteenth century.

    It took several centuries for Yayoi Japan to show the first signs of social stratification, as reflected especially in cemeteries. After about 100 b.c., separate parts of cemeteries were set aside for the graves of what was evidently an emerging elite class, marked by luxury goods imported from China, such as beautiful jade objects and bronze mirrors. As the Yayoi population explosion continued, and as all the best swamps or irrigable plains suitable for wet rice agriculture began to fill up, the archeological evidence suggests that war became more and more frequent: that evidence includes mass production of arrowheads, defensive moats surrounding villages, and buried skeletons pierced by projectile points. These hallmarks of war in Yayoi Japan corroborate the earliest accounts of Japan in Chinese chronicles, which describe the land of Wa and its hundred little political units fighting one another.

    In the period from a.d. 300 to 700, both archeological excavations and frustratingly ambiguous accounts in later chronicles let us glimpse dimly the emergence of a politically unified Japan. Before a.d. 300, elite tombs were small and exhibited a regional diversity of styles. Beginning around a.d. 300, increasingly enormous earth-mound tombs called kofun, in the shape of keyholes, were constructed throughout the former Yayoi area from Kyushu to North Honshu. Kofun are up to 1,500 feet long and more than 100 feet high, making them possibly the largest earth-mound tombs in the world. The prodigious amount of labor required to build them and the uniformity of their style across Japan imply powerful rulers who commanded a huge, politically unified labor force. Those kofun that have been excavated contain lavish burial goods, but excavation of the largest ones is still forbidden because they are believed to contain the ancestors of the Japanese imperial line. The visible evidence of political centralization that the kofun provide reinforces the accounts of kofun-era Japanese emperors written down much later in Japanese and Korean chronicles. Massive Korean influences on Japan during the kofun era—whether through the Korean conquest of Japan (the Korean view) or the Japanese conquest of Korea (the Japanese view)—were responsible for transmitting Buddhism, writing, horseback riding, and new ceramic and metallurgical techniques to Japan from the Asian mainland.

    Finally, with the completion of Japan’s first chronicle in a.d. 712, Japan emerged into the full light of history. As of 712, the people inhabiting Japan were at last unquestionably Japanese, and their language (termed Old Japanese) was unquestionably ancestral to modern Japanese. Emperor Akihito, who reigns today, is the eighty-second direct descendant of the emperor under whom that first chronicle of a.d. 712 was written. He is traditionally considered the 125th direct descendant of the legendary first emperor, Jimmu, the great-great-great-grandson of the sun goddess Amaterasu.

    Japanese culture underwent far more radical change in the 700 years of the Yayoi era than in the ten millennia of Jomon times. The contrast between Jomon stability (or conservatism) and radical Yayoi change is the most striking feature of Japanese history. Obviously, something momentous happened at 400 b.c. What was it? Were the ancestors of the modern Japanese the Jomon people, the Yayoi people, or a combination? Japan’s population increased by an astonishing factor of 70 during Yayoi times: What caused that change? A passionate debate has raged around three alternative hypotheses.

    One theory is that Jomon hunter-gatherers themselves gradually evolved into the modern Japanese. Because they had already been living a settled existence in villages for thousands of years, they may have been preadapted to accepting agriculture. At the Yayoi transition, perhaps nothing more happened than that Jomon society received cold-resistant rice seeds and information about paddy irrigation from Korea, enabling it to produce more food and increase its numbers. This theory appeals to many modern Japanese because it minimizes the unwelcome contribution of Korean genes to the Japanese gene pool while portraying the Japanese people as uniquely Japanese for at least the past 12,000 years.

    A second theory, unappealing to those Japanese who prefer the first theory, argues instead that the Yayoi transition represents a massive influx of immigrants from Korea, carrying Korean farming practices, culture, and genes. Kyushu would have seemed a paradise to Korean rice farmers, because it is warmer and swampier than Korea and hence a better place to grow rice. According to one estimate, Yayoi Japan received several million immigrants from Korea, utterly overwhelming the genetic contribution of Jomon people (thought to have numbered around 75,000 just before the Yayoi transition). If so, modern Japanese are descendants of Korean immigrants who developed a modified culture of their own over the last 2,000 years.

    The last theory accepts the evidence for immigration from Korea but denies that it was massive. Instead, highly productive agriculture may have enabled a modest number of immigrant rice farmers to reproduce much faster than Jomon hunter-gatherers and eventually to outnumber them. Like the second theory, this theory considers modern Japanese to be slightly modified Koreans but dispenses with the need for large-scale immigration.

    By comparison with similar transitions elsewhere in the world, the second or third theory seems to me more plausible than the first theory. Over the last 12,000 years, agriculture arose at not more than nine places on Earth, including China and the Fertile Crescent. Twelve thousand years ago, everybody alive was a hunter-gatherer; now almost all of us are farmers or fed by farmers. Farming spread from those few sites of origin mainly because farmers outbred hunters, developed more potent technology, and then killed the hunters or drove them off lands suitable for agriculture. In modern times European farmers thereby replaced native Californian hunters, aboriginal Australians, and the San people of South Africa. Farmers who used stone tools similarly replaced hunters prehistorically throughout Europe, Southeast Asia, and Indonesia. Korean farmers of 400 b.c. would have enjoyed a much larger advantage over Jomon hunters because the Koreans already possessed iron tools and a highly developed form of intensive agriculture.

    Which of the three theories is correct for Japan? The only direct way to answer this question is to compare Jomon and Yayoi skeletons and genes with those of modern Japanese and Ainu. Measurements have now been made of many skeletons. In addition, within the last three years molecular geneticists have begun to extract dna from ancient human skeletons and compare the genes of Japan’s ancient and modern populations. Jomon and Yayoi skeletons, researchers find, are on the average readily distinguishable. Jomon people tended to be shorter, with relatively longer forearms and lower legs, more wide-set eyes, shorter and wider faces, and much more pronounced facial topography, with strikingly raised browridges, noses, and nose bridges. Yayoi people averaged an inch or two taller, with close-set eyes, high and narrow faces, and flat browridges and noses. Some skeletons of the Yayoi period were still Jomon-like in appearance, but that is to be expected by almost any theory of the Jomon-Yayoi transition. By the time of the kofun period, all Japanese skeletons except those of the Ainu form a homogeneous group, resembling modern Japanese and Koreans.

    In all these respects, Jomon skulls differ from those of modern Japanese and are most similar to those of modern Ainu, while Yayoi skulls most resemble those of modern Japanese. Similarly, geneticists attempting to calculate the relative contributions of Korean-like Yayoi genes and Ainu-like Jomon genes to the modern Japanese gene pool have concluded that the Yayoi contribution was generally dominant. Thus, immigrants from Korea really did make a big contribution to the modern Japanese, though we cannot yet say whether that was because of massive immigration or else modest immigration amplified by a high rate of population increase. Genetic studies of the past three years have also at last resolved the controversy about the origins of the Ainu: they are the descendants of Japan’s ancient Jomon inhabitants, mixed with Korean genes of Yayoi colonists and of the modern Japanese.

    Given the overwhelming advantage that rice agriculture gave Korean farmers, one has to wonder why the farmers achieved victory over Jomon hunters so suddenly, after making little headway in Japan for thousands of years. What finally tipped the balance and triggered the Yayoi transition was probably a combination of four developments: the farmers began raising rice in irrigated fields instead of in less productive dry fields; they developed rice strains that would grow well in a cool climate; their population expanded in Korea, putting pressure on Koreans to emigrate; and they invented iron tools that allowed them to mass-produce the wooden shovels, hoes, and other tools needed for rice-paddy agriculture. That iron and intensive farming reached Japan simultaneously is unlikely to have been a coincidence.

    We have seen that the combined evidence of archeology, physical anthropology, and genetics supports the transparent interpretation for how the distinctive-looking Ainu and the undistinctive-looking Japanese came to share Japan: the Ainu are descended from Japan’s original inhabitants and the Japanese are descended from more recent arrivals. But that view leaves the problem of language unexplained. If the Japanese really are recent arrivals from Korea, you might expect the Japanese and Korean languages to be very similar. More generally, if the Japanese people arose recently from some mixture, on the island of Kyushu, of original Ainu-like Jomon inhabitants with Yayoi invaders from Korea, the Japanese language might show close affinities to both the Korean and Ainu languages. Instead, Japanese and Ainu have no demonstrable relationship, and the relationship between Japanese and Korean is distant. How could this be so if the mixing occurred a mere 2,400 years ago? I suggest the following resolution of this paradox: the languages of Kyushu’s Jomon residents and Yayoi invaders were quite different from the modern Ainu and Korean languages, respectively.

    The Ainu language was spoken in recent times by the Ainu on the northern island of Hokkaido, so Hokkaido’s Jomon inhabitants probably also spoke an Ainu-like language. The Jomon inhabitants of Kyushu, however, surely did not. From the southern tip of Kyushu to the northern tip of Hokkaido, the Japanese archipelago is nearly 1,500 miles long. In Jomon times it supported great regional diversity of subsistence techniques and of pottery styles and was never unified politically. During the 10,000 years of Jomon occupation, Jomon people would have evolved correspondingly great linguistic diversity. In fact, many Japanese place-names on Hokkaido and northern Honshu include the Ainu words for river, nai or betsu, and for cape, shiri, but such Ainu-like names do not occur farther south in Japan. This suggests not only that Yayoi and Japanese pioneers adopted many Jomon place-names, just as white Americans did Native American names (think of Massachusetts and Mississippi), but also that Ainu was the Jomon language only of northernmost Japan.

    That is, the modern Ainu language of Hokkaido is not a model for the ancient Jomon language of Kyushu. By the same token, modern Korean may be a poor model for the ancient Yayoi language of Korean immigrants in 400 b.c. In the centuries before Korea became unified politically in a.d. 676, it consisted of three kingdoms. Modern Korean is derived from the language of the kingdom of Silla, the kingdom that emerged triumphant and unified Korea, but Silla was not the kingdom that had close contact with Japan in the preceding centuries. Early Korean chronicles tell us that the different kingdoms had different languages. While the languages of the kingdoms defeated by Silla are poorly known, the few preserved words of one of those kingdoms, Koguryo, are much more similar to the corresponding Old Japanese words than are the corresponding modern Korean words. Korean languages may have been even more diverse in 400 b.c., before political unification had reached the stage of three kingdoms. The Korean language that reached Japan in 400 b.c., and that evolved into modern Japanese, I suspect, was quite different from the Silla language that evolved into modern Korean. Hence we should not be surprised that modern Japanese and Korean people resemble each other far more in their appearance and genes than in their languages.

    History gives the Japanese and the Koreans ample grounds for mutual distrust and contempt, so any conclusion confirming their close relationship is likely to be unpopular among both peoples. Like Arabs and Jews, Koreans and Japanese are joined by blood yet locked in traditional enmity. But enmity is mutually destructive, in East Asia as in the Middle East. As reluctant as Japanese and Koreans are to admit it, they are like twin brothers who shared their formative years. The political future of East Asia depends in large part on their success in rediscovering those ancient bonds between them.

  98. Sweet Water Says:

    What does it matter? Japanese are Korean.

    Nips, it matters to you in every aspect because you believe the Japanese are Korean.
    .
    Whether it is true or not, Koreans want to believe the Japanese are Korean or the Japanese are the younger brother of Korean. That’s exactly why they are so bothered by the 36-year Japanese annexation of Korea, which hurt their pride as the elderly brother severely, although they were happily obedient for centuries to Chinese (Later Tang), Khitan, Manju (Jin), Mongol (Yuan), another Chinese (Ming), and another Manju (Qing).
    .
    Why don’t you think the Japanese are totally different nation from the Korean? Then, you wouldn’t always have to compare yourself with the Japanese and feel inferior to them, you wouldn’t have to compete with the Japanese counterpart in every field and feel exhausted, and most importantly you could escape from the spell of the Japanese empire and live your own life.

  99. General Tiger Says:

    What does it matter? Japanese are Korean.

    That’s just daydreaming. We may have common roots, but saying one is the bigger/smaller is just a waste of time and energy.

  100. Nips Says:

    Again I say…..What does it matter? Japanese are Korean are Chinese are Mongolian.

    Give it a break.

  101. Mikkel Says:

    Just stumble on ur site. My comment is a bit late. I heared about the anti-haryu comic book through a korean friend. I am living in germany right now and germany is heavily influenced by american pop-culture. 99% of the movies and over 70% TV-series are us-made. Stil germans never came up with an idea of a book/comic book to illustrate americans in an unfavorable way. The same goes for China/HK/Vietnam/TW/Malay… where the haryu wave exists, even stronger than in Japan. But none of this countries published such craps.
    The success of the haryu wave is due to the professionalism in promoting star culture by the Koreans. And this has nothing to do with what Japan did in Korea in the past.
    If Japan want to argue this way, one can also say that the success of JPs Manga/pop culture is just a result of the immense aid from US. Without the US., there will be no Manga/Anime/cinema or any culture/industries in Japan.
    I dont like the haryu wave, but this comic book does have a racist taste in it.

  102. Matt Says:

    Mikkel, this comic book has nothing to do with the Korean Wave, which is the whole point of my post. The book does not criticise the Korean Wave.

  103. Ken Says:

    “Japanese are Korean are Chinese are Mongolian.”

    Westerners often call Asians with lumping together Mongolian, by whom Eupore had been nearly conqured.
    But there is obvious difference by race in Y-chromosome of so-called Mongoloid as following site.

    http://www.geocities.com/littlednaproject/W-MAP.GIF

    Koreans had been accupied and massacred by Chinese dynasties many times so that they are similar to the Chinese.