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Lies, Half-truths, & Dokdo Video, Maps 5

January 10th, 2007 . by Gerry-Bevers

Muleungdo (Ullengdo) “also called ‘Usan'”

Below is a map of Uljin in Gangwon Province. It is part of an atlas called the Dongyeobigo (ca. 1682). Off the coast of Uljin, the the map shows two islands: Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 – 울릉도) and Muleungdo (武陵島 – 무릉도). Next to Muleungdo is written 一云于山 (일운우산), which means “also called ‘Usan.'”

Dongyeobigo (東輿備攷) Uljin, Gangwon Province, ca. 1682 

The above map is interesting because it has the names Ulleungdo, Muleungdo, and Usan[do] all on the same map. Old maps of the islands usually listed either Ulleungdo and Usando or Muleungdo and Usando, but not all three names together. Since Usando was the common denominator, Muleungdo was assumed to be an alternative name for Ulleungdo, but the above map is the first I have seen that shows Muleungdo was also used as an alternative name for Usando.  This is more evidence that Usando was not “Dokdo” because it shows that Ulleungdo and Usando were close enough together to cause name confusion.

Koreans during the Chosun period knew that Ulleungdo had a neighboring island (present-day Jukdo), but they frequently confused the names of the main island and the neighboring island, which was probably why the islands were drawn as approximately the same size on older maps, such as the one above. At one time or another, Ulleungdo, Muleungdo, and Usando had all been used to describe present-day Ulleungdo, but starting from approximately the middle of the 18th century, Usando was finally established as the name for Ulleungdo’s small neighboring island (present-day “Jukdo”), which is 2.2 kilometers off of Ulleungdo’s northeast shore, as is evidenced by the following maps:

Yeojido (輿地圖) Ulleungdo (ca. 1730)

Haedongjido (海東地圖) Ulleungdo (Early 1750s)

Joseon Jido (朝鮮地圖) Ulleungdo (between 1750 – 1768)

Jiseung (地乘) Ulleungdo (After 1776)

Gwangyeodo (廣輿圖) Ulleungdo (early 19th century)

Cheonggudo (靑邱圖) Ulleungdo (ca. 1834)

Koreans claim that “Usando” was the old name for present-day Dokdo, which is essentially two islands ninety-two kilometers southeast of Ulleungdo. However, the above maps very clearly show Usando as a “single,” neighboring island of Ulleungdo in a location that is very close to where Ulleungdo’s neighboring island of Jukdo is today. The question would have to be asked, “If Usando is “Dokdo,” then where is “Jukdo”?

Dokdo does not appear on any Korean map or is mentioned in any Korean document before 1906, which was after Japan legally incorporated Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo) in 1905.

Below is a modern-day map of Ulleungdo:

Japanese Translation provided by Kaneganese

武陵島(鬱陵島)は“‘于山島’とも呼ばれていた”

以下は江原道の蔚珍の地図です。東輿備攷(Dongyeobigo)と呼ばれる地図帖(1682頃)の一部です。この地図には蔚珍の沖に2つの島があることが確認出来ます。鬱陵島 (Ulleungdo- 울릉도) と武陵島 (Muleungdo- 무릉도)です。武陵島 の横に“一云于山”と書かれていますが、“‘于山島’とも呼ばれていた”という意味です。

 地図1:東輿備攷(Dongyeobigo)

上掲の地図は、とても興味深いものです。というのも、鬱陵島と武陵島と于山島の名称が全て一つの地図に記載されているからです。これらの島々の古い地図はたいてい、鬱陵島と于山島、もしくは、武陵島と于山島のどちらかが載っていますが、三つの名前が同時に載ることは無かったからです。于山島の方がよく使用される名称でしたので、武陵島は鬱陵島の別名だと考えられていました。しかし、上掲の地図で、武陵島も于山島の別名として使用されているのを私は初めて見ました。このことは、于山島が“独島”では無いことの更なる証拠となりえます。というのも、名称の混乱が起こるほど鬱陵島と于山島が近かったということを示しているからです。

朝鮮王朝時代の韓国人は、鬱陵島に隣接する島(現在の竹嶼)があったことを認識していたはずですが、本島と付属する島の名前を頻繁に混同していました。おそらくこうしたことが理由で、上掲の地図のように二つの島がほぼ同じ大きさで描かれたのだと思われます。過去の一時期に、鬱陵島と武陵島そして于山島の三つが全て、現在の鬱陵島を指すのに使用されていましたが、大体18世紀中庸から、最終的に于山島が鬱陵島の隣接する小さな島(現在の竹嶼で、鬱陵島北東沖2.2km)を指すようになったのです。以下にあげる6つの地図はその証拠として挙げられます。

 地図2:輿地圖(Yeojido)
 地図3:海東地圖(Haedongjido) 
 地図4:朝鮮地圖(Joseon Jido)
 地図5:地乘(Jiseung)
 地図6:廣輿圖(Gwangyeodo)
 地図7:靑邱圖(Cheonggudo)

韓国人は“于山島”が現在の独島の古い名前であったと主張していますが、独島はまず第一に、二つの島から形成されていて、鬱陵島の南東92kmの距離にあります。しかし、上掲の諸地図は、于山島を“単一”の鬱陵島に隣接する島で現在の竹嶼の位置に大変近い場所に描いています。もし于山島が独島ならば、竹嶼は一体何処なのか、と言う疑問が残ります。

独島は1906年以前の韓国のどの地図にも文献にもあらわれていません。
1906年は1905年に日本が合法的に竹島を併合したあとなのです。

以下は鬱陵島の現在の地図です。

Links to More Posts on Takeshima/Dokdo (With Japanese translations)

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 1

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 2

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 3

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 4

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 4 Supplement

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 5

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 6

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 7

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 8

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 9

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 10

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Part 11

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 1

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 2

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 2 Supplement

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 3

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 4

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 5

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 6

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 7

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 8

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 9

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 10

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 11

Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 12


57 Responses to “Lies, Half-truths, & Dokdo Video, Maps 5”


  1. […] Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 5 […]


  2. […] Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 5 […]


  3. […] Korean maps tell us that Usando was Ulleungdo’s neighboring island of Jukdo, which is located about 2.2 kilometers off Ulleungdo’s northeast shore. (See maps here, here, here, and here.) In 1903, two kilometers was equal to five Korean ri, so it seems very likely that the island that was supposedly 40 to 50 ri northeast of Ulleungdo was actually 4 to 5 ri northeast of Ulleungdo. Usando was simply an old name for Ulleungdo’s neighboring island of Jukdo, and was a name no longer used by Ulleungdo residents in 1903 and 1913. […]


  4. […] Korean maps tell us that Usando was Ulleungdo’s neighboring island of Jukdo, which is located about 2.2 kilometers off Ulleungdo’s northeast shore. (See maps here, here, here, and here.) In 1903, two kilometers was equal to five Korean ri, so it seems very likely that the island that was supposedly 40 to 50 ri northeast of Ulleungdo was actually 4 to 5 ri northeast of Ulleungdo. Usando was simply an old name for Ulleungdo’s neighboring island of Jukdo, and was a name that Ulleungdo residents in 1903 and 1913 apparently were no longer using to refer to Jukdo. […]


  5. […] The Jukdo mentioned in the 1900 edict was present-day Jukdo, which is located 2.2 kilometers off Ulleungdo’s east shore. Old Korean maps of Ulleungdo, however, show very clearly that the old name for Jukdo was “Usando.” (See maps here, here, here, and here.) That means that the “Ulleungdo” and “Usando” mentioned as being Uldo County in the 1908 document was present-day Ulleungdo and its neighboring island of Jukdo. If that is true, then what happened to the “Seokdo” in the 1900 edict? […]


  6. […] Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 5 […]


  7. […] Lies, Half-truths, and Dokdo Video, Maps 5 […]